The Direct Method has one very basic rule: No translation is allowed. In fact, the Direct Method receives its name from the fact that meaning is to be conveyed directly in the target language through the use of demonstration and visual aids. PRINCIPLES Reading in the target lgg. Should be taught from the beginning of lgg. Instruction; however, the reading skill will be developed through practice with speaking. Language is primarily speech. Culture consists of more than the fine arts (e.g. the students study geography & cultural attitudes.) Objects (e.g. regalia or pictures) present in the immediate classroom environment should be used to help students understand the meaning. 3. The native language should not be used in the classroom. 4. The teacher should demonstrate, not explain or translate. It is desirable that students make a direct association between the target language and meaning. 5. Students should learn to think in the target language as soon as possible.
Diane Larsen-Freeman, in her book Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching provides expanded descriptions of some common/typical techniques closely associated with the Direct Method. The listing here is in summary form only: (1) Reading Aloud (Reading sections of passages, plays or dialogs out loud) (2) Question and Answer Exercise (Asking questions in the target language and having students answer in full sentences) (3) Student Self-Correction (Teacher facilitates opportunities for students to self correct using follow-up questions, tone, etc) (4) Conversation Practice (Teacher asks students and students ask students questions using the target language) (5) Fill-in-the-blank Exercise (Items use target language only and inductive rather than explicit grammar rules) (6) Dictation (Teacher reads passage aloud various amount of times at various tempos, students writing down what they hear) (7) Paragraph Writing (Students write paragraphs in their own words using the target language and various models)
5.Total Physical Response. Principles and techniques. TPR is an approach to teaching a second language, based on listening linked to physical activities which are designed to reinforce comprehension.Total Physical Response (TPR) is a method developed by Dr. James J. Asher to aid learning second languages. The method relies on the assumption that when learning a second or additional language, that language is internalized through a process of code-breaking similar to first language development. Students respond to commands that require physical movement. TPR is primarily intended for ESL teacher, although the method is used in teaching other languages as well. Learning needed to become more enjoyable and less stressful
(1) The teacher directs and students "act" in response - "The instructor is the director of a stage play in which the students are the actors"
(2) Listening and physical response skills are emphasized over oral production.
(3) The imperative mood is the most common language function employed, even well into advanced levels. Interrogatives are also heavily used.
(4) Whenever possible, humor is injected into the lessons to make them more enjoyable for learners.
(5) Students are not required to speak until they feel naturally ready or confident enough to do so.
(6) Grammar and vocabulary are emphasized over other language areas. Spoken language is emphasized over written language.
12 Typical Techniques of TPR.
Larsen-Freeman, in her book Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching (1986:118-120) provides expanded descriptions of some common/typical techniques closely associated with TPR. The listing here is in summary form only.
(1) Using Commands to Direct Behavior (The use of commands requiring physical actions from the students in response is the major teaching technique)
(2) Role Reversal (Students direct the teacher and fellow learners)
(3) Action Sequence (Teacher gives interconnected directions which create a sequence of actions [also called an "operation"] - as students progress in proficiency, more and more commands are added to the action sequence. Most everyday activities can be broken down into a sequence of actions)