Many people all over the world are interested in sport. Sport helps people to stay healthy and makes them more organized and better disciplined in their daily activities.
They have always paid great attention to sport in our schools, colleges and universities. You can hardly find a school without a gym or a sportsground.
Every city and town has a few stadiums or swimming pools, where local or even international competitions are usually held. Traditionally, sport could be divided into professional and amateur sport.
Our sportsmen also participate in the Olympic Games and always win gold, silver and bronze medals.
The Olympic Games have long history.
They started in 776 ÂÑ in Greece and took place every four years for nearly twelve centuries at Olympia. They included many different kinds of sports. All the cities in Greece sent their best athletes to Olympia to compete in the Games. When the Games took place, all the wars stopped. So, the Olympic Games became the symbol of peace and friendship.
Now, there are Summer and Winter Olympic Games. They are held separately. There are always several cities wishing to host the Games.
The International Committee of Olympic Games selects the most suitable. After that, the host city starts its preparations for the competitions, constructs new sport facilities, or reconstructs them, reconstructs stadiums, hotels, press centres, etc. Thousand of athletes, journalists and guests arrive to the Games, and it takes great efforts to arrange everything.
Russia joined the Olympic movement in l952. In 1980, Moscow hosted the twenty-second Olympic Games. And in 2014 Sochi will host winter Olympic Games.
Why do many people like sport?
How could sport be traditionally divided into?
When did the Olympic Games start?
What happened in Greece when the Olympic Games started there?
When did Russia join the Olympic movement?
When did Moseow host the twenty-second Olympic Games?
When and where do the next Olympic Games take place?
Compare sports in Britain and your country.
Sport in Britain
The British are a sporting nation. Like everyone else they love football – in fact, they invented it.
Most British towns and cities have a football team. Every year each team plays in the Football Association competition. The two best teams play in the Cup Final at Wembley Stadium in London. Some fans pay up to $200 for a ticket for the Cup Final. It is one of the biggest sporting events of the year.
Cricket is a typically British game. The only other countries that play it are Pakistan, India, the West Indies, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Cricket is a summer game, lovely to watch from under old trees on a village “green”. It looks slow, but it can be exciting if you understand what’s going on. There are eleven men in each team. One man, (“the bowler”) throws the ball, and a “batsman” hits it with his bat. Cricket is a very long game. The big international matches go on for five days. But in the real English way, the players always stop for tea.
Tennis is another popular game in Britain. Every summer, in June, the biggest international tennis tournament takes place at Wimbledon, a suburb of London. There are strawberries and cream for sale, and everyone hopes the rain will stay away.
Many British people who live near the sea, a lake, or a river enjoy sailing. If you are really enthusiastic, and rich enough to buy your own boat, you can take part in one of the annual sailing races or “regattas” at Cowes, near Portsmouth, for example, or at Henley on the river Thames.
What kind of place is Wimbledon?
What is the Cup Final famous for?
How often do ‘regattas’ take place?
Do you know the rules of cricket?
We play all these sports. I play rugby. Do you play baseball?
We use go or do with sports. I go running. He does surfing.
In English you normally play a game but do a lot of / a bit of sports:
In the winter I do quite a lot of skiing; in the summer I play tennis and cricket.
NB We don’t use the with sports!
He’s fond of playing rugby. Teenagers play football a lot.
Where We Do Sports
The playing area for football, rugby, hockey and cricket is called a pitch; for tennis, volleyball, basketball, squash and badminton it is a court; for golf it is a course.
NBWhen you describe the playing area for football and the area around for the crowd (the people called spectators), it is called a stadium, e.g. Wembley Stadium.
We play tennis / badminton / volleyball / basketball on a tennis / badminton / volleyball / basketball court.
We play football / cricket / rugby on a football / cricket / rugby field or pitch. We swim in a swimming pool.
1. Ask and answer questions about sports.
Do you do any sports? Yes, I go swimming/running/sailing/canoeing.
Do you play football/tennis/badminton?
What’s your favourite sport? I like motor racing best.
2. Ñan you name (use a dictionary):
- four sports ending in –ball?
- five sports that don’t use a ball?
- three sports played on a court?
- two sports that use a track?
- two sports that use a table?
- one sport that uses a ring?
- one sport where you use a set of clubs
3. Put these words in the correct columns below.
swimming gloves crash helmet course football racket track ring boots pool motor racing clubs tennis net court golf track pitch trunks boxing goals costume shorts whistle vest
4. Ask questions for these answers.
1. What’s your favoutite sport?I like running best.
2. Do you …………………….? Yes, but not soccer, only American football.
3. ……………………………..?No, I don’t do any at all. I prefer watching TV.
4. Do you …………………….?Yes, I go to the swimming pool every Friday.
5. Write the names of the sports you like, do not like, and would like to do.
Words of Wisdom
Laugh, and the world laughs with you; weep, and you weep alone. (E.W. Wilcox)
When one door of happiness closes, another opens. (H. Keller)
6. Interview the members of your group about what they do in their free time.
What is your favorite sport?
Do you play it or watch it on TV?
Why do you like this sport?
Do you have a favorite pastime? What is it?
Why do you enjoy this pastime?
How many hours a week do you spend on it?
Compare BrE AmE
soccer (football in the US is a different game)
Read about sport in the USA
Sport in the USA
Baseball is the most popular summer sport in America. The first American baseball match was in 1839 inNew York, but some people think that baseball comes from a much older game called rounders, played in Europe for many years.
To play baseball, you need two teams of nine players. The “pitcher” throws the ball, and the “batter” hits it with his bat.
Americans start playing baseball young. There are “leagues” which children of eight can join. The top players become big stars, and earn a lot of money every year.
Americans play tennis, hockey and most other international sports, but they do not play football in the same way as the rest of the world.
American football is a very different game. The players can run with the ball, touch and push each other. The field looks different, and even the ball is a different shape. Players wear special clothes for American football, with helmets on their heads, because the game can be dangerous. Like international football teams, American teams have eleven players.
Basketball is another popular game in America. Only five people play in each team. One American basketball team, the Harlem Globetrotters, are famous all over the world. These extraordinary sportsmen, all very tall, have shown the world that sport can be funny as well as exciting.
Americans love winter sports, and ice hockey is a great favourite. This game, the national sport of Canada, is very fast, and can be dangerous. So if you play ice hockey, remember to wear your helmet!
Do you do any of these? Which new ones would you like to try?
Study the short conversation.
- Must I clean the house, mum?
- No, you needn’t. I can do it myself. And you must do your homework.
We use must do to say that it is necessary to do something: You must study well;
mustn’t – to forbid: You mustn’t smoke in class.
We use needn’t when it is unnecessary to do something: You needn’t worry.
1. Fill in the blank spaces with either MUSTN’T or NEEDN’T:
1. He … go to bed early; tomorrow is a holiday.
2. You … take an umbrella; I’m sure it won’t rain.
3. People … cross the road when the lights are red.
4. You … tell everybody what I’ve just told you. It’s a secret.
5. You … go to the library. I can lend you this book.
6. You … finish it if you aren’t hungry.
7. You … smoke in here; it’s forbidden.
8. People … drive a car without a license.
9. Liza … warm it. I like cold coffee.
2. Insert can, must or needn’t.
1. Tom … dive. – So … John.
2. … we start working now? – No, you … We … do it tomorrow.
3. The handbag you are looking at is very expensive, you … buy it.
4. You … do it at any time. It’s easy.
5. My husband … cook. – Neither … mine.
6. Jane … sew her fancy-dress herself. – So … Mary.
7. Why … we leave?
8. … I use your phone? I … call the ambulance.
9. … he come, too? – No, he … We … meet tomorrow.
3. Insert modal verbs can or may
1. I ... finish the work tomorrow if no one bothers me any more.
2. ... we come and see you next Sunday at three o'clock in the afternoon?
3. What time is it? — It ... be about six o'clock, but I am not sure.
4. Only a person who knows the language very well ... answer such a question.
5. ... I come in?
6. Let me look at your exercises. I ... be able to help you.
7. I ... not swim, because until this year the doctor did not allow me to be more than two minutes in the water. But this year he says I ... stay in for fifteen minutes if I like, so I am going to learn to swim.
8. Libraries are quite free, and any one who likes ... get books there.
9. I ... come and see you tomorrow if I have time.
10. Take your raincoat with you: it ... rain today.
11. Do you think you ... do that?
4. Insert modal verbs can or may
What ... we see on this map?
... you speak Spanish? — No, unfortunately I...
At what time ... you come to school?
... I come in?
You ... not smoke here.
... take your book? — I am afraid not: I need it.
He ... not speak English yet.
I have very little time: I ... go.
1. Feel proud of our athletes. Do you know them? Can you add some more facts?
Armavir Sports School of Olympic Reserve for Children and Youth is headed by Master of Sport in sambo and judo, International Referee Rudolf Baboyan, Teacher of Physical Education Department, ASPU.
Ashot Markarian, Merited Master of Sport in sambo, an ASPI graduate, won European and world championships twice.
The names of the young fighters S. Sarkisov, A. Kostenko, A. Ovasopian, P. Smirnov, A. Litvinenko, students of Technology and Management Department (ASPU), winners of Russian, European and world championships are known to the admirers of sambo and judo.
A group of Spanish athletes, champions of their country, have been coming to ArmavirSportsSchool for mastering the martial arts of judo and sambo. Guided by R. Baboyan, they achieved success and perfected themselves. One of them, a girl named Miren Leon, participated in the XXVII Olympics and was the eighth.
I. Do you remember the articles? Put them in if necessary.
1. Wanda didn’t go to … work yesterday.
2. There’s … small supermarket at … end of … street I live in.
3. Every term … parents are invited to … school to meet … teachers.
4. Nora works as … cleaner at … hospital.
5. I like to read in … bed before I go to sleep.
6. We had to wait at … station.
7. Margaret goes to … Riviera next week.
8. Life is difficult for … unemployed.
9. … Japanese are famous for their gardens.
10. Steve is in … prison for his political beliefs.
11. Jack can play … saxophone wonderfully.
12. What are they doing? – Watching … television.
II. Make the sentences into negatives and questions.
I’m late. ___________________
You’re working. ___________________
She’s leaving at 5 pm. __________________
There was a horror film on TV yesterday. _____________________
He bought a camera. ____________________
We’ve got time. ___________________
They will live in Rome in 2007. ___________________
She likes tennis. ___________________
They were staying at a nice hotel. ___________________
III. Use the phrases in the list to complete the sentences with be going to.
be late for work
eat a pizza
take it for a walk
make an apple pie
build a snowman
go to bed
take some photographs
buy a new house
see a dentist
1. Alex is hungry. He … .
2. It is snowing. Terry … .
3. Peter has got his camera. He … .
4. I think the dog wants to go out. Steve … .
5. Mr Jones has tooth ache. He … .
6. Sharon has a lot of money. She … .
7. Kevin is very tired. He … .
8. Rachel has some apples. She … .
9. There are black clouds on the sky. It … .
10. Quick! It’s half past 9. We … .
IV. Supply the sentences with can, must, may
1. … I have your type-writer for a day or two? – I’m afraid, not. I’m going to type myself.
2. I … repair my iron myself. … you help me?
3. … she do the work herself? Yes, she … She is a very intelligent girl.
4. I … drive a car. – You … boast, I think you … learn driving first.
5. … I come in? – Yes, you … but you … late for classes next time.
6. I … visit my friends tonight. I’m too busy.
7. Who … meet his mother at the airport?
8. You … help me. I … understand this word.
9. You … speak loudly. You have a sore throat.
10. Jessica isn’t present in class. She … be ill.
11. Alice is going to the USA to enter a university. She … take some exams before entering.
12. Carol knows a lot about films. She … be quite an expert in it.
13. Don’t make too much noise. You … wake up the baby in the next room.
V. Open the brackets, use the present perfect or the present simple.
As a rule I (have) bread and butter for breakfast but this time I (order) ham and eggs.
I usually (get) a lot of letters, but this week I (not/ get) any letters.
I (meet) him almost every day, but I (not/ meet) him today.
Jim always (shave) in the morning, but he (not/ shave) this morning.
We usually (have dinner) early, but we (not/ have dinner) yet today.
Mum always (buy) apples and pears for us, but today she (buy) bananas.
He seldom (get up) early, but today he (get up) very early.
She doesn’t like to go out with us, but this week she (go) with us to the zoo and to the cinema.
VI. True or false?
1 Which countries were they visiting when they travelled round the world?
2 Did you talkto Mrs. Taylor when I saw you?
3 When we woke in the morning the world was looking like a woderland.
4 How much did you payfor your house in 1990?
5 I was livingin Dublin when I met my husband.
6 I’m worn out. The baby coughed all night and I couldn’t sleep.
7 We had a good time when we lived in Scotland.
8 While I walked along the street I noticed an old lady.
VII. Open the brackets, use Past Simpleor Past Perfect.
Íå (to study) French before he (to enter) the university.
Lanny (to say) that he (to get) hiseducation in Cape Town.
The boy (to want) to act the main part in the play because he (to organize) the theatre.
Lanny (not to know) who (to attack) him in the darkness.
The girl (to be) glad that she (to find) a seat near the window.
Suddenly he (to remember) that he (not to ring) her up in the morning.
By the time the train (to reach) the city, he (to make) friends with many passengers.