The anatomy of domestic animals and sciences connected with it
Anatomy is the branch which deals with the form and structure of the principal domestic animals. To understand the structure of the organism in light of the connection between form and function, anatomy uses the data of physiology. Two chief methods of study are employed – systematic and topographic. In the former the body is regarded as consisting of systems of organs or apparatus which are similar in origin and structure and are associated in the performance of certain functions. The approach of systematic anatomy is to divide the organism artificially into parts using the analytical method. The divisions of systematic anatomy are:
1) Osteology (Osteologia), the description of the skeleton;
2) Arthrology(Arlhrologia), the description of the joints;
3) Myology(Myologia); the description of the muscles and accessory structures;
4) Splanchnology(Splanchnologia), the description of the viscera. It includes the following subdivisions:
4.1) Digestivesystem (Apparatus digestorius);
4.2) Respiratorysystem (Apparatus respiratorius);
4.3) Urogenitalsystem (Apparatus urogenitalis):
a) urinaryorgans (Organa uropoetica),
b) genitalorgans (Organa genitalia);
5) Angiology, the description of the organs of circulation;
6) Neurology, the description of the Nervoussystem;
7) Aesthesiology,the description of the sense organsand common integument.
Besides systematic anatomy there is topographic anatomy which studies the spatial relationships of the organs in the different body regions. The term topographic anatomy designates the methods by which the relative positions of the various parts of the body are accurately determined. It presupposes a fair knowledge of systematic anatomy.
The consideration of anatomical facts in their relation to surgery, physical diagnosis, and other practical branches is termed appliedanatomy.
As animal is a part of nature, anatomy, the science studding animal`s structure, is part of biology. Animal body is the complex of living matter. The structure of living matter comprises not only the form but the function, not only the morphological but the functional peculiarities of the organism.
Anatomy that studies the normal healthy organism is called normal anatomy, as distinct from pathological or morbidanatomy, which is concerned with the study of the sick organism and the morbid changes in its organs.
Anatomy is also related closely to histology, the science of tissues, particularly to the branch of histology known as microscopic anatomy. Histology and cytology, the science of the cell, are considered independent branches of science.
With the invention of the electron microscope, a new science, cytochemistry, was born at the junction of cytology and chemistry. As a result the structure of the animal organism is now studied at different levels: 1) at the level of sys- tems and organs – macroscopic anatomy, micro-macroscopic anatomy, micro- scopic anatomy; 2) at the level of tissues – histology; 3) at the cellularlevel – cytology; 4) at the molecular level.
Thus, anatomy and histology are currently divided according to level and technique of examination. Anatomy, histology, cytology and embryology constitute the general science of the form, structure and development of the organism which is called morphology.
What are the main parts of the animal body?
The main parts of the animal body are the head, the trunkand the pelvicand thoracic limbs. The head is connected with the trunk by the neck.
What parts is the head formed by?
The head is formed by the face, nasal, temporal, cheek, eye, earareas, the area of parotid glandand the frontalarea with the area of hornsat the horned cattle.
What organs are there according to structure?
There are two types of internalorgans according to structure: soft parenchymatousorgans – lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, genitalorgans and hollow tubularorgans – intestine, trachea, bronchi, ureters, internal
What are the parts of the face?
The upper part of the face is formed by the forehead and temples. Below there are the eyes, the nose, the cheeks, the mouth, the chin, and nostrils. On the both sides of the head there are the ears.