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Lecture 1. Theme: Etymological survey of the English word-stock.

After the Parliament of the Republic of Belarus had adopted the legislative acts which regulated the rights and responsibilities of foreign investors, providing unimpeded transference of their funds in foreign currency abroad, the number of joint and foreign ventures has greatly increased. Thus, by the 1st of August 2006 2228 commercial ventures with foreign funds were registered in Minsk which form 60% of the whole amount of such organizations, registered on the territory of Belarus. Nowadays, among the countries whic set up commercial organizations in Minsk the leaders are the USA (362), Germany (272), Russia (263) and Poland (178).

At present, the approximate annual amount of investments to the basic capital of Minsk is 900 mln US dollars.

Among the most attractive points for foreign investments into the economy of Minsk foreign investors consider the following:

– relative political stability;

– industrial potential and the presence of highly qualified scientific and productive personnel;

– favorable geographical position of the republic, the proximity of European market;

– readiness of Belarussian enterprises to organize the production of competitive goods and the possibility of quick access to the markets of adjoining countries.

In Minsk there is a Free Economic Zone (FEZ) “Minsk” with the area of 3459,4 acres with the special preferential tax regime of activity when the bulk of tax payments is greatly reduced. In also has a special customs regime when customs-duties aren’t levied and the measures of economic policy are not applied to imported goods on the territory of the FTZ and exported Belarussian products out of the FEZ.



HPO Integral

Highly technological production




Modern building materials and technologies


The 11th km

Food industry. Packaging. Mechanical engineering.






Transport service complex.




Food industry. Energy-saving printing industry.



Mechanical engineering.


Airport Minsk-2

Logistics. Wholesale business. Production and packing of on-board food.



Infrastructure of business.

The development of business in Minsk is ensured and supported by the acting normative-legal system of the Republic of Belarus, and also by different commercial and business organizations.

By the 1st of August 2006 more than 22 000 organizations and subjects of small business were registered in Minsk which form nearly 90% of all subjects of management.

According to the statistics, almost 60% of all private subjects of management of the country and also 1\3 of all individual businessmen of the Republic are registered in Minsk. On the whole, the private sector makes up over 36% of industry production, more than 72% of the retail turnover, almost 39% of paid services for the population, 35% of investments and 80% of contract work in the city. Private sector provides 70% of foreign trade turnover which made about 4 billion US dollars and more than 35% of tax proceeds to the city budget in 2005.

By the 1st of August 2006 28 commercial banks and 9 representations of foreign banks are registered in Minsk.

The general management of bank system in the Republic of Belarus is realized by the National Bank.





Lecture 1. Theme: Etymological survey of the English word-stock.

Word-formation in Modern English.




1. Etymological survey of the English word-stock:

а) definition of native terms, borrowing, translation loan, semantic loan. Words of native origin and their characteristics;

b) foreign elements in Modern English. Scandinavian borrowings, classical elements - Latin and Greek, French borrowings, Ukrainian-English lexical correlations;

c) assimilation of borrowings. Types and degrees of assimilation;

d) international words.

2. Word-formation in Modern English:

a) the morphological structure of a word. The morpheme. The principles of morphemic analysis. Types of morphemes. Structural types of words: simple, derived, compound words.

b) productivity. Productive and non-productive ways of word-formation.

c) affixation. General characteristics of suffixes and prefixes. Classification of prefixes. Classification of suffixes. Productive and non-productive affixes, dead and living affixes.

d) word - composition. Classification of compound words. Coordinative and subordinate compound words and their types.

e) conversion, its definition.

f) shortening. Lexical abbreviations. Acronyms. Clipping.

g) non-productive means of word formation. Blending. Back-formation. Onomatopoeia. Sentence-condensation. Sound and stress interchange.


1 вопрос 1. Etymological survey of the English word-stock Working Definitions of Principal Concepts.

Etymologically the vocabulary of the English language is far from being homogeneous(однорідний). It consists of two layers - the native stock of words and the borrowed stock of words. Numerically the borrowed stock of words is considerably larger than the native stock of words. In fact native words comprise only 30% of the total number of words in the English vocabulary but the native words form the bulk of the most frequent words actually used in speech and writing. Native words are highly polysemantic and productive in forming word clusters and set expressions.

Borrowed words (or loan words or borrowings) are words taken over from another language and modified according to the patterns(модель) of the receiving language.

The most effective way of borrowing is direct borrowing from another language as the result of contacts with the people of another country or with their literature. But a word may also be borrowed from source language but through another language.

When analyzing borrowed words one must distinguish between the two terms - "source of borrowing" and "origin of borrowing". The first term is applied to the language from which the word was immediately borrowed, the second - to the language to which the word may be ultimately traced e.g.

table - source of borrowing - French, origin of borrowing - Latin

elephant - source of borrowing - French, origin - Egypt

convene - source of borrowing - French, origin – Latin

There are different ways of classifying the borrowed stock of words. First of all the borrowed stock of words may be classified according to the nature of the borrowing itself as borrowings proper, translation loans and semantic loans.

Translation loans are words or expressions formed from the elements existing in the English language according to the patterns of the source language(мова оригіналу) (the moment of truth - sp. el momento de la verdad).

A semantic loan is the borrowing of a meaning for a word already existing in the English language (e.g. the compound word shock brigade which existed in the English language with the meaning "аварійна бригада" acquired a new meaning "ударна бригада" which it borrowed from the Russian language. Latin Loans are classified into the subgroups.

2 вопрос

1. Early Latin Loans. Those are the words which came into English through the language of Anglo-Saxon tribes. The tribes had been in contact with Roman civilization and had adopted several Latin words denoting objects belonging to that civilization long before the invasion of Angles, Saxons and Jutes into Britain (cup, kitchen, mill, port, wine).

2. Later Latin Borrowings. To this group belong the words which penetrated the English vocabulary in the sixth and seventh centuries when the people of England were converted to Christianity (priest bishop, nun, candle).

3. The third period of Latin includes words which came into English due to two historical events: the Norman Conquest in 1066 and the Renaissance or the Revival of Learning. Some words came into English through French but some were taken directly from Latin (major, minor intelligent, permanent).

4. The Latest Stratum of Latin Words. The words of this period are mainly abstract and scientific words (nylon, molecular, vaccine, phenomenon vacuum).

Norman-French Borrowings may be subdivided into subgroups:

1. Early loans - 12th - 15th century

2. Later loans - beginning from the 16th century.

The Early French borrowings are simple short words, naturalized in accordance with the English language system (state, power, war, pen, river). Later French borrowings can be identified by their peculiarities of form and pronunciation (regime, police, ballet, scene, bourgeois).

The Etymological Structure of English Vocabulary

The native elements The borrowed elements


I. Indo-European element I. Celtic (5th - 6th c.A.D.)

II. Germanic element II. Latin

III. English proper element (brought by 1st group: 1st c.B.C.

Angles, Saxons and Jutes not earlier 2nd group: 7th C.A.D.

than 5th c. A.D) 3d group: the Renaissance period

III. Scandinavian (8th-11th c.A.D.)

IV. French

1. Norman borrowings: 11th -13th c.A.D.

2. Parisian borrowings: (Renaissance)

V. Greek (Renaissance)

VI. Italian (Renaissance and later)

VII. Spanish (Renaissance and later)

VIII. German

IX. Indian and others

Ukrainian-English lexical correlations

Lexical correlations are defined as lexical units from different languages which are phonetically and semantically related. The number of Ukrainian-English lexical correlations is about 6870.The history of the Slavonic-German ties resulted in the following correlations: beat - бити, call - голос, day - день, widow - вдова, young - юний. Beside Ukrainian-English lexical correlations the Ukrainian language contains borrowings from modern English period e.g. брифінг, короткий інструктаж - briefing', диск-жокей, ведучий програм - disk-jockey; естеблішмент, організація суспільно-державних установ країни -establishment; хіт парад, конкурс популярних пісень - hit parade та інші.

Assimilation (уподібнення) is the process of changing the adopted word. The process of assimilation of borrowings includes changes in soundform, morphological structure, grammar characteristics, meaning and usage.

Phonetic assimilation comprises changes form and stress(наголос). Sounds that were alien to the English language were fitted into its scheme of sounds, e.g. In the recent French borrowings cafe the long [e] is rendered with the help of [ei]. The accent is usually transferred to the first syllable in the words from foreign sources.

Grammatical adaptation is usually a less lasting(довготривалий) process, because in oder to function adequately in the recipient language a borrowing must completely change its paradigm(сук-ність всіх форм слова). Though there are some well-known exceptions as plural forms of the English Renaissance borrowings - datum pi. data, criterion - pi. criteria and others.

The process of semantic assimilation has many forms: narrowing of meanings (usually polysemantic words are borrowed in one of the meanings); specialization(конкретизація) or generalization of meanings, acquiring new meaningsintherecipient language, shifting a primary meaning to the position of a secondary meaning.

Completely assimilated borrowings are the words which assimilated completely in other language. They take an active part in word-formation.

Partially assimilated borrowings are the words which lack one of the types of assimilation. They are subdivided into the groups:

1) Borrowings not assimilated semantically (e.g. shah, rajah). Such words usually denote objects and notions peculiar to the country from which they came.

2) Loan words not assimilated grammatically, e.g. nouns borrowed from Latin or Greek which keep their original forms (datum - data, phenomenon -phenomena).

3) Loan words not completely assimilated phonetically. These words contain peculiarities in stress, combinations of sounds that are not standard for English (machine, tobacco).

4) Loan words not completely assimilated graphically (e.g. ballet, cliche).

Barbarisms are words from other languages used by the English people in conversation or in writing but not assimilated in any way, and for which there are corresponding English equivalents, e.g. ciao Italian — good-bye English.

The borrowed stock of the English vocabulary contains not only words but a great number of suffixes and prefixes (-age, -ance, -ess, -ment).

In many cases one and the same word was borrowed twice either from the same language or from different languages. This accounts for the existence of the so called etymological doublets like canal - channel (Latin - French), balsam -balm (Greek - French).

International words. There exist many words that were borrowed by several languages. Such words are mostly of Latin and Greek origin and convey notions which are significant in the field of communication in different countries. Here belong names of sciences {philosophy, physics, linguistics), terms of art {music, theatre, drama, artist, comedy), political terms {politics, policy, progress). The English language became a source for international sports terms {football, hockey, cricket, rugby, tennis).

3 питання 2. Word-formation in Modern English Working Definitions of Principal Concepts

The word is not the smallest unit of the language. It consists of morphemes. The morpheme may be defined as the smallest meaningful(значимий) unit which has a sound form and meaning and which occurs in speech only as a part of a word.

Word formation(створення) is the creation of new words from elements already existing in the language. Every language has its own structural patterns(модель) of word formation. Morphemes are subdivided into root-morphemes and affixational morphemes.

The root morpheme is the lexical center of the word. It is the semantic nucleus(ядро) of a word with which no grammatical properties (властивості) of the word are connected.

Affixational morphemes include inflections(закінчення) and derivational(словотворчі) affixes.

Inflection is an affixal morpheme which carries only grammatical meaning thus relevant(важливий) only for the formation of word-forms {books, open-ed, strong-er).

Derivational morpheme is an affixal morpheme which modifies the lexical meaning of the root and forms a new word. In many cases it adds the part-of-speech meaning to the root (manage-ment, fruit-ful).

Morphemes which may occur in isolation and function as independent words are called free morpheme {pay, sum, form).

Morphemes which are not found in isolation are called bound morphemes (-er, un-, -less).

Morphemic analysis.

The segmentation of words is generally carried out according to the method of Immediate and Ultimate Constituents(безпосередня та заключна складова). This method is based upon the binary principle, e.g. each stage of procedure involves two components the word immediately breaks into. At each stage these two components are referred to as the Immediate Constituents (IC). Each IC at the next stage of analysis is in turn broken into smaller meaningful elements. The analysis is completed when we arrive at constituents incapable of further division, i.e. morphemes. These are referred to as Ultimate Constituents (UC). The analysis of word-structure on the morphemic level must naturally proceed(продовжувати) to the stage of UC-s.

Allomorphs are the phonemic variants of the given morpheme e.g. il-, im-, ir-, are the allomorphs of the prefix in- (illiterate, important, irregular, inconstant).

Monomorphic are root-words consisting of only one root-morpheme i.e. simple words (dry, grow, boss, sell).

Polymorphic are words consisting of at least one root-morpheme and a number of derivational affixes, i.e. derivatives, compounds {customer, payee, body-building, shipping).

Derived words are those composed of one root-morpheme and one more derivational morpheme (consignment, outgoing, publicity).

Compound words contain at least two root-morphemes (warehouse, camera­man).

4 питання Productivity is the ability to form new words after existing patterns which are readily(швидко) understood by the speakers of a language. Synchronilly the most important and the most productive ways of word-formation are affixation, conversion(перетворення), word-composition and abbreviation(скорочення) (contraction). In the course of time the productivity of this or that way of word-formation may change. Sound interchange or gradation (blood - to bleed, to abide - abode, to strike - stroke) was a productive way of word building in old English and is important for a diachronic study of the English language. It has lost its productivity in Modern English and no new word can be coined by means of sound gradation. Affixation on the contrary was productive in Old English and is still one of the most productive ways of word building in Modern English.

Affixation is the formation of new words with the help of derivational affixes. Suffixation is more productive than prefixation. In Modern English sufflxation is typical of verb formation (incoming, principal, promotion).

Affixes are usually divided into living and dead affixes. Living affixes are easily separated from the stem {care-ful). Dead affixes have become fully merged(зливатися) with the stem and can be singled out by a diachronic analysis of the development of the word {admit — Latin - ad+mittere). Living affixes are in their turn divided into productive and non-productive affixes. In many cases the choice of the affixes is a means of differentiating meaning:

uninterested - disinterested

distrust - mistrust

5 питання Word-composition is another type of word-building which is highly productive. That is when new words are produced by combining two or more stems.

Stem is that part of a word which remains unchanged throughout its paradigm and to which grammatical inflexions(закінчення) and affixes are added. The bulk of compound words is motivated and the semantic relations between the two components are transparent.

Compound words proper are formed by joining together stems of words already available in the language. Compound proper is a word, the two Immediate Constituents(безпосередня складова) of which are stems of notional(змістовий) words, e.g. ice-cold (N+A), ill-luck (A+N).

Derivational compound is a word formed by a simultaneous process of composition and derivation. Derivational compound is formed by composing a new stem that does not exist outside this pattern and to which suffix is added. Derivational compound is a word consisting of two Immediate Constituents, only one of which is a compound stem of notional words, the other being a derivational affix, e.g. blue-eyed - (A+N)+ed. In coordinative compounds neither of the components dominates the other; both are structurally and semantically independent and constitute(складати) two structural and semantic centers, e.g. breath-taking, self-discipline, word-formation.

Conversion is a highly productive way of coining new words in Modern English. Conversion is sometimes referred to as an affixless way of word-building, a process of making a new word from some existing root word by changing the category of a part of speech without changing the morphemic shape of the original root-word. The transposition of word from one part of speech into another brings about changes of the paradigm.

Conversion is not only highly productive but also a particularly English way of word-building. It is explained by the analytical structure of Modern English and by the simplicity of paradigms of English parts of speech. A great number of one-syllable words is another factor that facilitates conversion.

Typical semantic relations within a converted pair

I.Verbs converted from noun (denominal verbs) denote:

1. action characteristic of the object ape (n) — to ape (v)

butcher (n) — to butcher (v)

2. instrumental use of the object screw (n) — to screw (v) whip (n) — to whip (v)

3. acquisition or addition of the object fish (n) — to fish (v)

II. Nouns converted from verbs (deverbal nouns) denote:

1. instance of the action to jump (v) -jump (n) to move (v) — move (n)

2. agent of the action to help (v) - help (n)

to switch (v) - switch (n)

3. place of action

to drive (v) — drive (n) to walk (v) - walk (n)

4. object or result of the action to peel (v) -peel (n)

to find (v) —find (n)

The shortening of words involves the shortening of both words and word-groups. Distinction(розмежування) should be made between shortening of a word in written speech (graphical abbreviation) and in the sphere of oral intercourse (lexical abbreviation). Lexical abbreviations may be used both in written and in oral speech. Lexical abbreviation is the process of forming a word out of the initial(початковий) elements (letters, morphemes) of a word combination by a simultaneous operation of shortening and compounding.

Acronym -a pronounceable name made up of a series of initial letters or parts of words; for example, UNESCO for the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization

Clipping consists in cutting off two or more syllables of a word. Words that have been shortened at the end are called apocope (doc - doctor, vet - veterinary). Words that have been shortened at the beginning are called aphaeresis (phone-telephone). Words in which some syllables or sounds have been omitted(пропускати) from the middle are called syncope (ma 'm - madam, specs - spectacles). Sometimes a combination of these types is observed (tec - detective, frig - refrigerator).

6 питання Blendings (blends, fusions or portmanteau words) may be defined as formation that combine two words that include the letters or sounds they have in common as a connecting element (slimnastics = slim+gymnastics; mimsy= miserable+flimsy). The process of formation is also called telescoping. The analysis into immediate constituents(компонент) is helpful in so far as it permits the definition of a blend as a word with the first constituent represented by a stem whose final part may be missing, and the second constituent by a stem of which the initial part is missing. The second constituent when used in a series of similar blends may turn into a suffix. A new suffix -on; is, for instance, well under way in such terms as nylon, rayon, silon, formed from the final element of cotton. This process seems to be very active in present-day English word-formation numerous new words have been coined recently(нещодавно): Reaganomics, Irangate, blackploitation, workaholic.

Back formation is a semi-productive type of word-building. It is mostly active in compound verbs, and is combined with word-composition. The basis of this type of word-building is compound words and word-combinations having verbal nouns, gerunds, participles or other derivative nouns as their second component {rush-development, finger-printing, well-wisher). These compounds and word-combinations are wrongly considered to be formed from compound verbs which are nonexistent in reality. This gives a rise to such verbs as: to rush-develop, to finger-print, to well-wish.

Onomatopoeia (sound-imitation, echoism) is the naming of an action or thing by a more or less exact reproduction of a natural sound associated with it {babble, crow, twitter). Semantically, according to the source of sound, onomatopoeic words fall into a few very definite groups. Many verbs denote sounds produced by human being in the process of communication or in expressing their feelings {babble, chatter, giggle, murmur). There are sounds produced by animals, birds and insects {cackle, croak, crow, hiss). Besides the verbs imitating the sound of water {bubble, splash), there are others imitating the noise of metallic things {clink, tinkle) or forceful motion {clash, crash, whisk).

Sentence-condensation is the formation of new words by substantivizing the whole locutions(вираз,зворот) (forget-me-not, merry-go-round).

Sound and stress interchange (distinctive stress, the shift of stress). The essence of it is that to form a new word the stress of the word is shifted to a new syllable. It mostly occurs in nouns and verbs. Some phonetic changes may accompany the shift of the stress {export-to export, increase - to increase, break — breach).

Lecture 2

Theme: English vocabulary as a System.


1. Definition of the term "synonym". A synonymic group and its dominant member.

2. Problem of classification of synonyms:


a) different principles of classification: according to difference in denotational component of meaning or in connotational component (ideographic or stylistic synonyms);

b) according to the criterion of interchangeability in linguistic context (relative, total and contextual synonyms).


3. Characteristic pattern of English synonyms.

4. The sources of synonymy.

5. Homonyms. Classification. Origin of homonyms.

6. The English vocabulary as an adaptive system. Neologisms.

7. Traditional lexicological grouping. Lexico-grammatical groups. Word-families. 8* The concept of polarity of meaning. Antonyms. Morphological classification of

antonyms: absolute or root antonyms and derivational antonyms. Semantic classification of antonyms: antonyms proper, complementaries, conversives.

9. The theory of the semantic field. Common semantic denominator.

lO.Thematic or ideographic groups. Common contextual associations.

ll.Hyponymy, paradigmatic relation of inclusion. Hyponyms, hyperonyms, equonyms.


Питання 7 Working Definitions of Principal Concepts

Synonymy is the coincidence (співпадіння) in the essential(основний) meaning of words which usually preserve(зберігати) their differences in connotations and stylistic characteristics.

Synonyms are two or more words belonging to the same part of speech and possessing (мати) one or more identical or nearly identical denotational meanings, interchangeable in some contexts. These words are distinguished by different shades of meaning, connotations(додаткове значення) and stylistic features.

The synonymic dominant is the most general term potentially containing the specific features rendered by all the other members of the group. The words face, visage, countenance have a common denotational meaning "the front of the head" which makes them close synonyms. Face is the dominant, the most general word; countenance(вираз обличчя) is the same part of the head with the reference to the expression it bears; visage is a formal word, chiefly literary, for face or countenance.

In the series leave, depart, quit, retire, clear out the verb leave, being general and most neutral term can stand for each of the other four terms.

One must bear in mind that the majority of frequent(що часто повторюються) words are polysemantic and it is precisely the frequent words that have many synonyms. The result is that a polysemantic word may belong in its various meanings to several different synonymic groups. For example there are 9 synonymic groups of the word part (as the result of a very wide polysemy:

1) piece, parcel, section, segment, fragment, etc;

2) member, organ, constituent, element, component, etc;

3) share, portion, lot;

4) concern, interest, participation;

5) allotment, lot, dividend, apportionment;

6) business, charge, duty, office, function, work;

7) side, party, interest, concern, faction;

8) character, role, cue, lines;

9) portion, passage, clause, paragraph.

The semantic structure of two polysemantic words sometimes coincide(співпадати) in more than one meaning, but never completely.

In a great number of cases the semantic difference between two or more synonyms is supported by the difference in valency. An example of this is offered by the verbs win and gain. Both may be used in combination with the noun victory: to win a victory, to gain a victory. But with the word war only win is possible: to win a war.

Recently there has been introduced into the definition of synonymity the criterion of interchangeability in linguistic contexts that is synonyms are supposed to be words which can replace each other in a given context without the slightest alteration(зміна) either in the denotational or connotational meaning.But this is possible only in some contexts, in others their meanings may not coincide, e.g. the comparison of the sentences "the rainfall in April was abnormal" and “the rain in April was exceptional" may give us grounds for assuming that exceptional and abnormal are synonyms. The same adjectives in a different context are by no means(ні в якому разі) synonymous, as we may see by comparing "my son is exceptional" and "my son is abnormal".

Classification of Synonyms

a) According to whether the difference is in denotational or connotational component synonyms are classified into ideographic into stylistic.

Ideographic synonyms denote different shades of meaning or different degrees of a given quality. They are nearly identical in one or more denotational meanings and interchangeable at least in some contexts, e.g. beautiful - fine -handsome -pretty. Beautiful conveys(передавати), for instance, the strongest meaning; it marks the possession of that quality in its fullest extent, while the other terms denote the possession of it in part only. Fineness, handsomeness and prettiness are to beauty as parts to a whole.

Stylistic synonyms differ not so much in denotational as in emotive value or stylistic sphere of application.

Pictorial language often uses poetic words, archaisms as stylistic alternatives of neutral words, e.g. maid for girl, bliss for happiness, steed for horse, quit for leave.

In many cases a stylistic synonym has an element of elevation in its meaning, e.g. face - visage, girl - maiden.

Along with elevation of meaning there is the reverse process of degradation: to begin - to fire away, to eat - to devour, to steal ~ to pinch, face - muzzle.

b) According to the criterion of interchangeability in context synonyms are

classified into total, relative and contextual.

Total synonyms are those members of a synonymic group which can replace each other in any given context, without the slightest alteration (зміна) in denotative meaning or emotional meaning and connotations. They are very rare. Examples can be found mostly in special literature among technical terms and others, e.g. fatherland - motherland, suslik - gopher, noun - substantive, functional affix -flection, inflection.

Relative Synonyms.

Some authors class groups like ask - beg - implore, or like - love - adore, famous celebrated eminent as relative synonyms, as they denote different degree of the same notion(поняття,значення) or different shades of meaning and can be substituted(замінений) only in some contexts.

Contextual or context-dependent synonyms are similar in meaning only under some specific distributional conditions. It may happen that the difference between the meanings of two words is contextually neutralized, e.g. buy and get would not generally be taken as synonymous, but they are synonyms in the following examples: ГII go to the shop and buy some bread. I'll go to the shop and get some bread.

The verbs bear, suffer, stand are semantically different and not interchangeable except when used in the negative form: I can't stand it, I can't bear it.

One of the sources of synonymy is borrowing. Synonymy has its characteristic patterns in each language. Its peculiar feature in English is the contrast between simple native words stylistically neutral, literary words borrowed from French and learned words of Greco-Latin origin.

Native English French Borrowings Latin borrowings

to ask to question to interrogate

to end to finish to complete

to rise to mount to ascend

teaching guidance instruction

belly stomach abdomen

There are also words that came from dialects, in the last hundred years, from American English, in particular, e.g. long distance call AE - trunk call BE, radio AE — wireless BE.

Synonymic differntiation. Synonymic assimilation. It must be noted that synonyms may influence each other semantically in two diametrically opposite ways: one of them is dissimilation or differentiation, the other - the reverse process, i.e. assimilation.

Many words now marked in the dictionaries as "archaic" or "obsolete" have dropped out of the language in the competition of synonyms, others survived with a meaning more or less different from the original one. This process is called synonumic differentiation and is so current that is regarded as (розцінюватись) an inherent law of language development.

The assimilation of synonyms consists in parallel development.

Питання 8Homonymy

The problem of polysemy is closely connected with the problem of homonymy. Homonyms are words which have the same form but are different in meaning. "The same form" implies identity in sound form or spelling, i.e. all the three aspects are taken into account: sound-form, graphic form and meaning.

Both meanings of the form "liver" are, intentionally present in the following play upon words: "Is life worth living? -It depends upon the liver".

The most widely accepted classification of homonyms is that recognizing homonyms proper, homophones and homographs.

Homonyms proper (or perfect, absolute) are words identical in pronunciation and spelling but different in meaning, like back n. "part of the body" - back adv. "away from the front" - back v. "go back".

Homophons are words of the same sound but of different spelling and meaning: buy— by, him hymn, steel — steal, storey — story.

Homographs are words different in sound and in meaning but accidentally identical in spelling: lead [li:d] - lead [led], bow [bouj - bow [bauj.

Homoforms - words identical in some of their grammatical forms. To bound (jump, spring) - bound (past participle of the verb bind)

Paronyms are words that are alike in form, but different in meaning and usage. They are liable to be mixed and sometimes mistakenly interchanged.

The term parynym comes from the Greek para "beside" and onoma "name". Examples are: preposition —proposition, popular —populous.

Homonyms in English are very numerous. Oxford English Dictionary registers 2540 homonyms, of which 89% are monosyllabic words and 9,1% are two-syllable words. So, most homonyms are monosyllabic words.

Among the other ways of creating homonyms the following processes must be mentioned:

conversion which serves the creating of grammatical homonyms, e.g. iron -to iron, work —to work, etc.;

polysemy - as soon as a derived meaning is no longer felt to be connected with the primary meaning at all (as in bar - балка; bar - бар; bar - адвокатура) polysemy breaks up and separate words come into existence, quite different in meaning from the basic word but identical in spelling.

From the viewpoint of their origin homonyms are sometimes divided into historical and etymological.

Histirical homonyms are those which result from the breaking up of polysemy; then one polysemantic word will split up into two or more separate words, e.g.

to bear (терпіти) - to bear (народити)

pupil (учень) - pupil (зіниця)

plant (рослина) - plant (завод)

Etymological homonyms are words of different origin which come to be alike in sound or in spelling (and may be both written and pronounced alike).

Borrowed and native words can coincide in form, thus producing homonyms.

It should be noted that the most debatable problem in homonymy is the demarcation(розмежування) line between homonymy and polysemy, i.e. between different meaning of one word and the meanings of two or more homonymous words.

The English vocabulary as an adaptive system. Neologisms.Being an adaptive system the vocabulary is constantly adjusting (регулювати) itself to the changing requirements and conditions of human communication and cultural and other needs. This process of self-regulation of the lexical system is a result of overcoming contradictions between the state of the system and the demands it has to meet. The speaker chooses from the existing stock of words such words that in his option can adequately express his thought and feeling. Failing to find the expression he needs, he coins a new one. It is important to stress that the development is not confined to coining new words on the existing patterns but in adapting the very structure of the system to its changing functions.

The concept of adaptive system permits us to study language as a constantly developing but systematic whole. The adaptive system approach gives a more adequate account of the systematic phenomena of a vocabulary by explaining more facts about the functioning of words and providing more relevant generalizations, because we can take into account the influence of extra-linguistic reality. The study of the vocabulary as an adaptive system reveals the pragmatic essence of the communication process, i.e. the way language is used to influence the addressee(адресат).

The adaptive system approach to vocabulary is still in its infancy (початкова стадія), but it is already possible to give an interim(тимчасовий) estimate(оцінка) of its significance. The process may be observed by its results, that is by studying new words or neologisms. New notions(поняття) constantly come into being, requiring new words to name them. New words and expressions or neologisms are created for new things irrespective of their scale of importance. They may be all important and concern some social relationships such as a new form of state (People's Republic), or the thing may be quite insignificant and short-lived, like fashions in dancing, clothing, hairdo or footwear (rollneck). In every case either the old words are appropriately(належним чином) changed in meaning or new words are borrowed, or more often coined out of the existing language material either according to the patterns and ways already productive in the language at a given stage of its development or creating new ones.

Thus, a neologism is a newly coined word or phrase or a new meaning for an existing word, or a word borrowed from another language.

The intense development of science and industry has called forth the invention and introduction of an immense number of new words and changed the meaning of old ones, e.g. aerobics, black hole, computer, super-market and so on.

For a reliable mass of evidence on the new English vocabulary the reader is referred to lexicographic sources. New additions to the English vocabulary are collected in addenda (доповнення) to explanatory dictionaries and in special dictionaries of new words.

The majority of linguists nowadays agree that the vocabulary should be studied as a system. Our present state of knowledge is however, insufficient to present the whole of the vocabulary as one articulated system, so we deal with it as if it were a set of interrelated systems.

Питання 9 By a lexico-grammatical group we understand a class of words which have a common lexico-grammatical meaning, common paradigm, the same substituting(замінний) elements and possible characteristic set of suffixes rendering the lexico-grammatical meaning. These groups are subsets(сук-ність) of the parts of speech, several lexico-grammatical groups constitute (складати) one part of speech. Thus English nouns are subdivided approximately into the following lexico-grammatical groups: personal names, animal names, collective names (for people), collective names (for animals), abstract nouns, material nouns, object nouns, proper names for people, toponymic names.

Another traditional lexicological grouping is known as word-families in which the words are grouped according to the root-morpheme, for example: dog, doggish, doglike, dogg, to dog, dogged, doggedly, doggedness, dog-days, dog-biscuit, dog­cart, etc.

Питання10Antonyms are words belonging to the same part of speech different in sound, and characterized by semantic polarity of their denotational meaning. According to the character of semantic opposition antonyms are subdivided into antonyms proper, complete and conversitives. The semantic polarity in antonyms proper is relative, the opposition is gradual, it may embrace several elements characterized by different degrees of the same property. They always imply comparison. Large and little or small denote polar degrees of the same notion, i.e. size.

Complementaries are words characterized only by a binary opposition which may have only two members; the denial of one member of the opposition implies the assertion(ствердження) of the other, e.g. not male means female.

Conversives are words which denote one and the same referent as viewed from different points of view, that of the subject and that of the object, e.g. buy-sell, give - receive.

Morphologically antonyms are subdivided into root (absolute) antonyms (good - bad) and derivational antonyms (apper - disapper).


semantic morphological

classification classification

proper conversives absolute or root

young - old buy-sell good - bad

large-little give —receive old —new

husband - wife


complementaries appear - disappear

male - female logical-illogical

single - married

Питання 11 Semantic field is a closely knit sector of vocabulary characterized by a common concept (e.g. in the semantic field of space we find nouns - expanse, extent, surface; verbs - to extend, to spread, to span; adjectives - spacious, roomy, vast, broad). The member of the semantic fields are not synonymous but all of them are joined together by some common semantic component. This component common to all the members of the field is sometimes described as the common denominator of meaning, like the concept of kinship, concept of colour, parts of the human body and so on. The basis of grouping in this case is not only linguistic but also extra-linguistic: the words are associated, because the things they name together and are closely connected in reality.

Thematic (or ideographic) groups of words joined together by common contextual associations within the framework (структура) of the sentence and reflect the interlinking (зв'язок )of things and events in objective reality. Contextual association are formed as a result of regular co-occurrence (суміжність) of words in similar repeatedly used contexts.

Thematic or ideographic groups are independent(незалежний) of classification into parts of speech. Words and expression are here classed not according to their lexico-grammatical meaning but strictly according to their signification (значення), i.e. to the system of logical notions (e.g. tree - grow - green; sunshine - brightly - blue – sky.)

Питання 12 Hyponymy is the semantic relationship of inclusion existing between elements of various levels. Thus, e.g. vehicle includes car, bus, taxi. The hyponymic relationship is the relationship between the meaning of the general and the individual terms.

A hyperonym is a generic term which serves as the name of the general as distinguished from the names of the species-hyponyms. In other words the more specific term is called the hvponym. For instance, animal is a generic term as compared to the specific names wolf, dog, mouse (these are called equonyms). Dog, in its turn, may serve as a generic term for different breeds such as bull-dog, collie, poodle, etc.

Lecture 3 (individual studying) Theme: Phraseology


1. Free word combination and phraseological word combination. The problem of definition of phraseological word combination. The essential features of phraseological units: lack of semantic motivation (idiomaticity) and lexical and grammatical stability. The concept of reproducibility.

2. Different approaches to the classification of phraseological units: semantic, functional (according to their grammatical structure), contextual.

3. Academician V.V.Vinogradov's classification of phraseological units. The degree of idiomaticity as an essential requirement for the classification:


a) phraseological combinations;

b) phraseological unities;

c) phraseological fusions.


4. Stylistic aspect of phraseology. Polysemy and Synonymy of Phraseological Units.

5. N.N.Amosova's concept of contextual analysis. Definition of fixed context. Two types of units of fixed context: a) phrasemes, b) idioms. Two types of idioms.

6. S.V.Koonin's concept of phraseological units. Functional and semantic classification of phraseological units.

7. Formal and functional classification.

8. Phraseological stability.

9. Proverbs, saying, familiar quotations and cliches.

Питання 13 Definitions of Principal Concepts.

Phraseological unit is a non-motivated word-group that cannot be freely made up in speech but is reproduced as a ready made unit.

Reproducibility is regular use of phraseological units in speech as single unchangeable collocations(поєднання слів).

Idiomaticity is the quality of phraseological unit, when the meaning of the whole is not deducible from the sum of the meaning of the parts.

Stability of phraseological unit implies that it exists as a ready-made linguistic unit which does not allow of any variability of its lexical components of grammatical structure.

1. In lexicology there is great ambiguity(неясність) of the terms phraseology and idioms. Opinions differ as to how phraseology should be defined, classified, described and analyzed. The word "phraseology" has very different meanings in this country and in Great Britain or the United States. In linguistic literature the term is used for the expressions where the meaning of one element is dependent on the other, irrespective (незалежно) of the structure and properties of the unit (V.V.Vinogradov); with other authors it denotes only such set expressions which do not possess expressiveness or emotional colouring (A.I.Smirnitsky), and also vice versa(навпаки): only those that are imaginative, expressive and emotional (I.V.Arnold). N.N.Amosova calls such expressions fixed context units, i.e. units in which it is impossible to substitute(замінити) any of the components without changing the meaning not only of the whole unit but also of the elements that remain intact(незайманий,цілий). O.S.Ahmanova insists on the semantic integrity of such phrases prevailing over the structural separateness of their elements. A.V.Koonin lays stress on the structural separateness of the elements in a phraseological unit, on the change of meaning in the whole as compared with its elements taken separately and on a certain minimum stability.

In English and American linguistics no special branch of study exists, and the term "phraseology" has a stylistic meaning, according to Webster's dictionary 'mode of expression, peculiarities of diction, i.e. choice and arrangement of words and phrases characteristic of some author or some literary work'.

Difference in terminology ("set-phrases", "idioms", "word-equivalents") reflects certain differences in the main criteria used to distinguish types of phraseological units and free word-groups. The term "set phrase" implies that the basic criterion of differentiation is stability of the lexical components and grammatical structure of word groups.

The term "idiom" generally implies that the essential feature of the linguistic units is idiomaticity or lack of motivation.

The term "word-equivalent" stresses only semantic but also functional inseparability of certain word groups, their aptness(здатність) to function in speech as single words.The essential features of phraseological units are: a) lack of semantic motivation; b) lexical and grammatical stability.

As far as semantic motivation is concerned phraseological units are extremely variated from motivated (by simple addition of denotational meaning) like a sight for sore eyes and to know the ropes, to partially motivated (when one of the words is used in a not direct meaning) or to demotivated (completely non-motivated) like tit for tat, red-tape.

Lexical and grammatical stability of phraseological units is displayed in the fact that no substitution of any elements whatever is possible in the following stereotyped (unchangeable) set expressions, which differ in many other respects: all the word and his wife, red tape, calflove, heads or tails, first night, to gild the pill, to hope for the best, busy as a bee, fair and square, stuff and nonsense, time and again, to and for.

In a free phrase the semantic correlative ties are fundamentally different. The information is additive and each element has a much greater semantic independence. Each component may be substituted without affecting the meaning of the other: cut bread, cut cheese, eat bread. Information is additive in the sense that the amount of information we had on receiving the first signal, i.e. having heard or read the word cut, is increased, the listener obtains further details and learns what is cut. The reference of cut is unchanged. Every notional word can form additional syntactic ties with other words outside the expression. In a set expression information furnished by each element is not additive: actually it does not exist before we get the whole. No substitution for either cut or figure can be made without completely ruining the following:

/ had an uneasy fear that he might cut a poor figure beside all these clever Russian officers (Shaw). He was not managing to cut much of a figure (Murdoch).

The only substitution admissible for the expression cut a poor figure concerns the adjective.

Питання 14 Semantic approach stresses the importance of idiomaticity, functional approach - syntactic inseparability, contextual approach - stability of context combined with idiomaticity.


Питання 15 In his classification V.V.Vinogradov developed some points first advanced by the Swiss linguist Charles Bally. The classification is based upon the motivation of the unit, i.e. the relationship existing between the meaning of the whole and the meaning of its component parts. The degree of motivation is correlated(взаємопов’язаний)withtherigidity(стійкість), indivisibility(неподільність) and semantic unity of the expression, i.e. with the possibility of changing the form or the order of components, and of substituting the whole by a single word. According to the type of motivation three types of phraseological units are suggested: Phraseological combinations, phraseological unities, and phraseological fusions.

The Phraseological collocations (combinations)(словосполучення), are partially motivated, they contain one component used in its direct meaning while the other is used figuratively: meet the demand, meet the necessity, meet the requirements.

Phraseological unities are much more numerous. They are clearly motivated. The emotional quality is based upon the image created by the whole as in to stick (to stand) to one's guns, i.e. 4refuse to change one's statements or opinions in the face of opposition', implying courage and integrity. The example reveals another characteristic of the type, the possibility of synonymic substitution, which can be only very limited, e.g. to know the way the wind is blowing.

Phraseological fusions(фразеологічне зрощення), completely non-motivated word-groups, (e.g. tit for tat), represent as their name suggests the highest stage of blending together. The meaning of components is completely absorbed by the meaning of the whole, by its expressiveness and emotional properties. Phraseological fusions are specific for every language and do not lend themselves to literal translation into other languages.

Питання 16 4.Semantic stylistic features contracting set expressions into units of fixed context are simile(порівняння), contrast(протилежність), metaphor and synonymy. For example: as like as two pears, as old as the hills and older than the hills (simile); from beginning to end, for love or money, more or less, sooner or later (contrast); a lame duck, a pack of lies, arms race, to swallow the pill, in a nutshell (metaphor); by leaps and bounds, proud and haughty (synonymy). A few more combinations of different features in the same phrase are: as good as a gold, as pleased as Punch, as fit as a fiddle (alliteration, simile); now or never, to kill or cure (alliteration and contrast). More rarely there is an intentional pun(гра слів): as cross as two sticks means 'very angry'. This play upon words makes the phrase jocular(смішний). The comic effect is created by the absurdity of the combination making use of two different meanings of the word cross (adj.) and cross (п.).

There are, of course, other cases when set expressions lose their metaphorical picturesqueness, having preserved some fossilised words and phrases, the meaning of which is no longer correctly understood. For instance, the expression buy a pig in a poke may be still used, although poke «bag» does not occur in other contexts. Expressions taken from obsolete sports and occupations may survive in their new figurative meaning. In these cases the euphonic(милозвучний) qualities of the expression are even more important. A muscular and irreducible(неперетворюваний) phrase is also memorable. The muscular feeling is of special importance in slogans and battle cries. Saint George and the Dragon for Merrie England, the medieval battle cry, was a rhythmic unit to which a man on a horse could swing his sword. The modern Scholarships not battleships! can be conveniently scanned by a marching crowd.

Питання 17 5. N.N. Amosova's approach is contextological. She defines phraseological units as units of fixed context. Fixed context is defined as a context characterised by a specific and unchanging sequence(послідовність) of definite lexical components, and a peculiar(своєрідний) semantic relationship between them. Units of fixed context are subdivided into phrasemes and idioms. Phrasemes are always binary: one component has a phraseologically bound meaning, the other serves as the determining context (small talk, small hours, small change). In idioms the new meaning is created by the whole, though every element may have its original meaning weakened or even completely lost: in the nick of time 'at the exact moment'. Idioms may be motivated or demotivated. A motivated idiom is homonymous(двозначний) to a free phrase, but this phrase is used figuratively: take the bull by the horns 'to face dangers without fear'. In the nick of time is demotivated, because the word nick is obsolete. Both phrasemes and idioms may be movable (changeable) or immovable.

6. A.V.Koonin's classification is based on the functions the units fulfil(виконувати) in speech. They may be nominating {a bull in a china shop), interectional (a pretty kettle of fish), communicative {familiarity breeds contempt), or nominating- communicative (pull somebody's leg). Further classification into subclasses depends on whether the units are changeable or unchangeable, whether the meaning of the one element remains free, and, more generally, on the interdependence between the meaning of the elements and the meaning of the set expression.

7. Formal classification distinguishes set expressions that are nominal phrases: the root of the trouble; verbal(дієслівний) phrases: put one's best foot forward; adjectival phrases: as good as gold; red as a cherry; adverbial(прислівниковий) phrases: from head to foot; prepositional(прийменниковий) phrases: in the course of; conjunctional(сполучниковий) phrases: as long as, on the other hand; interjectional(вигук) phrases: Well, I never! A stereotyped sentence also introduced into speech as a ready-made formula may be illustrated by Never say die! 'never give up hope', take your time 'do not hurry'.

This classification takes into consideration not only the type of component parts but also the functioning of the whole, thus, tooth and nail is not a nominal but an adverbial unit, because it serves to modify a verb (e.g. fight tooth and nail).

Within each of these classes a further subdivision is as follows:

a) Set expressions functioning like nouns:

N+N: maiden name 'the surname of a woman before she was married'; brains trust 'a committee of experts'

N's+N: cat's paw 'one who is used for the convenience of a cleverer and stronger person' (the expression comes from a fable in which a monkey wanting to eat some chestnuts that were on a hot stove, but not wishing to burn himself while getting them, seized a cat and holding its paw in his own used it to knock the chestnuts to the ground)

Ns'+N: ladies' man 'one who makes special effort to charm or please women". N+prp+N: the arm of the law; skeleton in the cupboard.

N+A: knight errant (the phrase is today applied to any chivalrous man ready to help and protect oppressed and helpless people). N+and+N: lord and master 'husband'; all the world and his wife. A+N: high tea 'an evening meal which combines meat or some similar extra dish with the usual tea'. N+subordinate clause: ships that pass in the night 'chance acquaintances'.

c) Set expressions functioning like verbs:

V+N: take advantage

V+and+V: pick and choose

V+(one's)+N+(prp): snap one's fingers at

V+one+N: give one the bird fcto fire sb'

V+subordinate clause: see how the land lies 'to discover the state of affairs'.

c) Set expressions functioning like adjectives: A+and+A: high and mighty

(as)+A+as+N: as old as the hills, as mad as a hatter

d) Set expressions functioning like adverbs: N+N: tooth and nail

prp+N: by heart, of course adv+prp+N: once in a blue moon prp+N+or+N: by hook or by crook cj+clause: before one can say Jack Robinson

e) Set expressions functioning like prepositions:

prp+N+prp: in consequence of

f) Set expressions functioning like interjections:

These are often structured as imperative sentences: Bless (one's) soul! God bless me! Hang it (all)!

Питання 18 8. Phraseological stability(стійкість) is based upon:

a) the stability of use;

b) the stability of meaning;

c) lexical stability;

d) syntactic stability;

e) rhythmic characteristics, rhyme and imagery(сук-ність худ.прийомів).

9Proverbs(прислів’я),sayings(приказка),familiar quotations(цитата) and cliches.

The place of proverbs, sayings and familiar quotations with respect to set expressions is a controversial(спірний) issue. A proverb is a short familiar epigrammatic saying expressing popular wisdom(мудрість), a truth or a moral lesson in a concise(короткий) and imaginative(творчий) way. Proverbs have much in common with set expressions, because their lexical components are also constant, their meaning is traditional and mostly figurative, and they are introduced into speech ready-made. Another reason why proverbs must be taken into consideration together with set expressions is that they often form the basis of set expressions. E.g. the last straw breaks the camel fs back: .the last straw; a drowning man will clutch at a straw: :clutch at a straw; it is useless to lock the stable door when the steed is stolen: .lock the stable door.

As to familiar quotations, they are different from proverbs in their origin. They c

Date: 2015-01-02; view: 1274

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