Home Random Page


CATEGORIES:

BiologyChemistryConstructionCultureEcologyEconomyElectronicsFinanceGeographyHistoryInformaticsLawMathematicsMechanicsMedicineOtherPedagogyPhilosophyPhysicsPolicyPsychologySociologySportTourism






Expressing obligation

Must and have to are used to express obligation. In statements about obligation with must, the obligation is usually one that the speaker imposes on him/ herself. Have to is often used to refer to an external obligation (e.g. a law, regulation or order from another person). Compare these two sentences: / really mustdo something to protect myself against identity theft. We now have toshred all documents before throwing them away.

Must can generally be replaced by have to:

... potential creditors must/ have touse what the law refers to as ...

Must and have to are used differently in the negative form. You mustattend the

meeting has the same meaning as You have toattend the meeting. However,

compare the meanings of these two sentences:

You mustn'tattend the meeting.

You don't have toattend the meeting.

You 1).................................. attend the meeting implies an absence of obligation.

You may attend the meeting if you wish, but it is not compulsory.

You 2)................................ attend the meeting implies that you are prohibited

from attending the meeting (e.g. confidential information will be discussed that those present do not wish you to know).

32 Decide whether these sentences are giving advice or expressing obligation. Complete them using should, must or have to. Remember, in some cases more than one answer may be possible.

1 To register as a victim of identity theft, you................................... obtain a

registration application packet from the Department of Justice.

2 Those convicted of aggravated identity theft................................... serve an

additional mandatory two-year prison term.

3 We believe that banking organisations.................................... provide their

customers with better information about how to prevent identity theft.

4 Credit reporting companies................................... make any requests for

further information within 15 days of receiving your Identity Theft Report.

5 Victims of identity theft................................... monitor financial records for

several months after they discover the crime.

6 Memorise your passwords and personal identification numbers (PINs) so you
do not.................................. write them down.


Unit 4 Criminal law


Speaking 3: Role-play: advising a client

33 Discuss the four cases below with a partner. Take it in turns to play the roles
of the lawyer and the client.

Lawyer

When playing the role of the lawyer, take detailed notes and ask any further questions necessary using the WASP technique outlined in Unit 3. Advise your client using the language of giving advice and expressing obligation.

For example: You should check your credit-card, statements as soon as yow receive them. If you see any purchases you didWt make, you should, challenge them immediately.

Client

When playing the role of the client, respond to the questions posed by the lawyer as best you can, inventing any details when necessary. Do not give all of the information at once.



1 You have just been forwarded several pieces of mail from a previous address. The mail includes a bill, a series of reminders and follow-up letters demanding payment for a car that you did not purchase. The most recent letter is from a lawyer representing the company from which the car was bought. He is threatening you with legal action.

2 Last week, your credit card was refused, although you had not used it for several months and had no outstanding debts. When you called the credit-card company, they said that the card had been used for a series of online transactions two months ago and that you are now over your limit. You have not received a statement for three months.

3 You have recently begun a small business employing four administrative personnel. You are concerned about the rising level of crime involving identity fraud, and wish to develop a comprehensive policy to reduce the risk to your staff and customers.

4 You are the CEO of a major international company. Last night, your head of customer security attended a leaving party for a colleague before travelling home on the train. When he woke up this morning, he realised that he had left his laptop somewhere between the office and home.

Writing: Letter of advice

34 Write a follow-up letter of advice based on one of your lawyer-client interviews
in Exercise 33. Use the structure outlined in the email of advice in Unit 2.


Language Focus

1 PrepositionsComplete the following text with the prepositions in the box. against fef of of on on on to

Last month, three high-level employees of the Junesco Corporation were arrested

1)....... for..... fraud. They were accused 2)................... having developed a complex scheme

involving investors' money. An action was brought 3).................... them in the civil court.

All three were convicted 4)................... fraud and obstruction of justice, and sentenced

5)................. two years' imprisonment. The judge stated that the actions of the three

men not only had an adverse effect 6).................... the Junesco Corporation, but also had

a negative impact 7)................... investors' confidence in the financial system. After the

defendants' lawyers requested that the judge suspend the sentences, the men were put
8)................. probation.

2 Words easily confusedDistinguish the following words by matching each with its definition.
Then use one word from each pair to complete the sentences that follow.

Proof/ prove

a..................... (verb): to show a particular result after a period of time

b..................... {noun): a fact or piece of information which shows that something

exists or is true

The state was unable to....................... that the defendant was an accomplice to the theft.


Date: 2015-12-24; view: 1229


<== previous page | next page ==>
Eastwood, Lott and McCarthy Solicitors | Proscribe / prescribe
doclecture.net - lectures - 2014-2019 year. Copyright infringement or personal data (0.002 sec.)