Exercise 17. Complete the extract below from a law textbook by using the given verbs.
are tried is bought is committed
is committed is fined is punished
is put is resolved is caused
A crime is a wrong which 1) against society. The wrongdoer 2) ..: he or she 3) in prison or 4) . a sum of money. A tort, on the other hand, is a wrong which 5) .against an individual. The injured party can sue the wrongdoer and receive damages from the court. Criminal sanctions exist to make society safer and to keep people from committing certain acts. Tort remedies exist to make the injured party whole again for the harm which 6) .by the wrongdoer.
A key difference between the two is that a crime requires a criminal intent (mens rea), whereas a tort can result without intent to cause harm on the wrongdoers part.
Crimes 7) .in the criminal courts. An action 8) ..by a governmental body against the wrongdoer. A tort, conversely, 9) . in the civil courts; the injured party brings an action against the wrongdoer.
Exercise 18.Give a short presentation on the main differences between a crime and a tort. Include these points: the parties, the outcomes, the terminology and procedure and the standard of proof. Refer to your own jurisdiction in your presentation.
Exercise 19. Listening (ΐσδθπξβΰνθε Ή 9 νΰ moodle).Listen to the radio announcement and fill in the table below. Using the notes, describe each suspect; then, write each suspects description.
thick, .., grey
walks with a limp
Exercise 20. Match the following sentence halves to form explanations of punishments which are available to the courts.
1) When someone is sentenced to execution, .
2) When someone is placed on a community service order, ..
3) When someone is sentenced to imprisonment, .
4) When someone is put on parole, .
5) When someone is put on probation,
6) When someone is fined, .
a) they are put in prison for a crime.
b) they are given a period of time when they must behave well and not commit any more crimes in order to avoid being sent to prison.
c) they have to pay an amount of money as a punishment for breaking a law.
d) they are killed as a legal punishment for a crime.
e) they are released before their prison sentence is finished, with the agreement that they will behave well.
f) the court requires an offender to perform unpaid work in their spare time and to contribute to their community.
Exercise 21. Listening (νΰ moodle). White-collar crime in the 21st centuary.
You are going to hear a law professor being interviewed on a university radio station programme. Professor John Poulos is a faculty member at the University of California Davis School of Law. After practising law in California, he introduced the law schools firstcourse on white-collar crime.
A) Listen to the interview. Does Professor Poulos think that white-collar crime is less serious than, as serious as or more serious than violent street crime?
B) Listen again and decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F), according to the professor.
1) New technology has led to a decrease in white-collar crime.
2) Street crime is generally punished more harshly than white-collar crime.
3) Increasingly, white-collar crime is committed by employees high up in the corporate hierarchy.
4) The number of people who are victims of white-collar crime is significant.
5) White-collar crime has had little effect on the US economy.
C) In the interview, Professor Poulos talks about changes in white-collar crime and the effect of white-collar crime on society. Listen again and complete these extracts.
1) The internationalisation of the economy .more opportunities for white-collar crime.
2) While violent crime frequently ..the victims of that crime, it is usually fairly limited.
3) But when you have a savings and loans scandal, as weve seen in the past, or an Enron scandal, those crimes ..millions of people.
4) Enron ..large, large numbers of people.
5) The other is the sheer mass of injuries inflicted on investors in cases like Enron, which .the system of investing in the USA.
6) Part of the slow recovery of the economy . white-collar crime on the investment environment.
Exercise 22. Fill in the blanks with the following words and word combinations:
a) international organization k) international charter
b) under the name of l) to escape
c) to rename m) to combat crime
d) sky-jacking n) legal concept
e) treaty o) suspected
f) within the limits of laws p) particularly
g) wanted (2) q) to revive
h) international terrorism r) to define
i) a strict code of behaviour s) the basic rights
j) the most highly respected groups in the world
What is an international criminal? It is not a new type of wrongdoer. The term is simply one of practical convenience. For example, if a man kills a woman in London and then 1) .. in the USA, he becomes an international criminal. If the term were based on some 2) , we should recognize the existence of such a thing as international crime.
At the beginning of the 20-th century it was necessary that the 3) should be created 4) and to exchange ideas and methods between the police forces in the world. It came into being 5) International Criminal Police Commission in 1923 and worked until the beginning of World War II.
In 1946 the old members of the ICPC which had been disrupted by the war met in Belgium 6) the organization. In 1956 it was 7) the International Criminal Police Organization Interpol.
Interpol is, in fact, a private organization. It has never been recognized or established by any 8) or 9) and has no police powers. Because of Interpols cooperation with the UN, 10) in the area of drugs, Interpol was recognized as an intergovernmental organization.
The general aims of Interpol are 11) in its Constitution. The combating of international criminals 12) existing in different countries is divided into three distinct activities: the exchange of police information, the identification of 13) or 14) by the police, the arrest of those who are 15) .
Interpol also fights 16) and 17) and still assists a number of nations in the continuing search for wanted Nazi war criminals.
Being one of 18) , Interpol, like any other police force is under governmental control to safeguard 19) of every citizen. It operates according to 20) and adheres to the highest ethical standards.