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Verbs Followed by the Subjunctive

The Subjunctive is used after the following verbs:

to advise (that)

to ask (that)

to command (that)

to demand (that)

to desire (that)

to insist (that)

to propose (that)

to recommend (that)

to request (that)

to suggest (that)

to urge (that)

Examples:

  • Dr. Smith asked that Mark submit his research paper before the end of the month.
  • Donna requested Frank come to the party.
  • The teacher insists that her students be on time.

Expressions Followed by the Subjunctive

The Subjunctive is used after the following expressions:

It is best (that)

It is crucial (that)

It is desirable (that)

It is essential (that)

It is imperative (that)

It is important (that)

It is recommended (that)

It is urgent (that)

It is vital (that)

It is a good idea (that)

It is a bad idea (that)

Examples:

  • It is crucial that you be there before Tom arrives.
  • It is importantshe attend the meeting.
  • It is recommended that he take a gallon of water with him if he wants to hike to the bottom of the Grand Canyon.

Negative, Continuous and Passive Forms of Subjunctive

The Subjunctive can be used in negative, continuous and passive forms.

Negative Examples:

  • The boss insisted that Sam not be at the meeting.
  • The company asked that employees not accept personal phone calls during business hours.
  • I suggest that you not take the job without renegotiating the salary.

Passive Examples:

  • Jake recommended that Susan be hired immediately.
  • Christine demanded that I be allowed to take part in the negotiations.
  • We suggested that you be admitted to the organization.

Continuous Examples:

  • It is important that you be standing there when he gets off the plane.
  • It is crucial that a car be waiting for the boss when the meeting is over.
  • I propose that we all be waiting in Tim's apartment when he gets home.

Should as Subjunctive

After many of the above expressions, the word "should" is sometimes used to express the idea of subjunctiveness. This form is used more frequently in British English and is most common after the verbs "suggest," "recommend" and "insist."

Examples:

  • The doctor recommended that she should see a specialist about the problem.
  • Professor William suggested that Wilma should study harder for the final exam.

Reported Speech (Indirect Speech)

If we report what another person has said, we usually do not use the speaker’s exact words (direct speech), but reported (indirect) speech. Therefore, you need to learn how to transform direct speech into reported speech. The structure is a little different depending on whether you want to transform a statement, question or request.

Statements

When transforming statements, check whether you have to change:

  • pronouns
  • present tense verbs (3rd person singular)
  • place and time expressions
  • tenses (backshift)
Type Example
direct speech “I speak English.”
reported speech (no backshift) He says that he speaks English.
reported speech (backshift) He said that he spoke English.

Questions



When transforming questions, check whether you have to change:

  • pronouns
  • present tense verbs (3rd person singular)
  • place and time expressions
  • tenses (backshift)

Also note that you have to:

  • transform the question into an indirect question
  • use the interrogative or if / whether
Type Example
with interrogative direct speech “Why don’t you speak English?”
reported speech He asked me why I didn’t speak English.
without interrogative direct speech “Do you speak English?”
reported speech He asked me whether / if I spoke English.

Requests

When transforming questions, check whether you have to change:

  • pronouns
  • place and time expressions
Type Example
direct speech “Carol, speak English.“
reported speech He told Carol to speak English.

Date: 2015-12-24; view: 635


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