When presenting various statements and data from published sources (e.g. books, journals, newspapers, electronic sources, etc.) or unpublished sources (diaries, manuscripts, conversations) the source of information must always be cited. Common knowledge needs no citation. The statements by other authors can either be quoted or paraphrased.
Quotation stands for a word-by-word presentation of the text in the original source. Quotations must correspond exactly with the original in wording, spelling, capitalization, punctuation and spacing. Quotations are marked by quotation marks inside the text, e.g. “The reader will process all the words in a phrase or a clause before constructing its meaning” (Grabe 1990, 56).
Paraphrasing stands for the retelling of another author’s ideas using the author’s own words. Quotation marks are not used. For example:
Researchers have suggested that teaching readers how to use specific reading strategies is a primal consideration within the reading process (Anderson, 1999).
When referring back to the original source, the author-date system must be used. The reference is placed inside the text using parentheses and it consists of the author's name (in the case of a publication without an author, the first word of the title) and the publication date. For example:
The whole cycle is evaluated during this stage of metacognition (Anderson 1999).
All the references inside the text must be listed according to the alphabetical order of authors in the referencessection at the end of the paper.
The required elements in a reference depend on whether the author:
- cites only the source (Anderson 1999)
- cites certain pages in the source (Anderson 1999, 18) or (Anderson 1999, 18-19)
- has already mentioned the original author in the sentence (1999, 18)
In case of a single-sentence quotation or reference, the reference is placed at the end of the sentence before the full stop. For example:
The essence of this exercise lies in that towards the end of the text, four or five gaps are left that can only be filled in if the text has been properly understood (Ur 1996, 146).
The reference can also be placed at the beginning of a sentence or in the middle of it. For example:
As Readence, Bean, and Baldwin (1985, 4) claim, “this prior knowledge or pathway to understanding new ideas is crucial”.
In case of longer references, the reference should be added at the end of the passage.
For works with two authors both names are given in the reference using and between them:
(Anderson and Ur 2000, 21)
For works with several authors use the name of the first author followed by the
abbreviation et al. or and others:
(Nutall et al. 2000)
If the source does not have an individual author’s name but is published by an organization taken as an author, the name of the organization may serve as the author in text references.
For works without authors the first word (or first words) of the title serve(s) as a
reference, for example:
(Chicago Manual 1993, 112)
If the reference contains several sources, a semicolon separates them:
(Anderson 2001, 12; Ur 2000, 45)
(Anderson 2001a, 76; Anderson 2001b, 189)
References for encyclopedias or dictionaries include the title of the volume and the date, or reprint, and abbreviation s.v. (sub voce or sub verbo,) and the entry word in quotation marks. Page numbers are not given. Well-known reference books (encyclopedias, dictionaries) are generally not listed in reference list. For example:
(Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., s. v. ”management”)
Secondary source quotation (citing sources that have been cited in another author’s work) should be avoided.
For the citation of on-line materials see EBS Manual of Writing Style by Ants Kraus.
All the sources cited in the test must be listed on the reference list and vice versa.
Sources are listed in alphabetical order by the authors’ family names or by the initial word in the title when no individual author’s name is given. In case titles start with an article, the article is ignored and is altogether left out in source notes. Works of one author are arranged in order according to dates of publication. If the list includes works by one author published in the same year, the works are arranged in the alphabetical order within this year according to the initial words of the title, with letters a, b, c etc. following the year of publication in order to distinguish them.
The reference list entry is drawn up in the language of the original source referred to.
Presenting lists of sources in other than Latin alphabet, transliteration is used.
List entries must comprise certain obligatory data. In the absence of some obligatory information about the sources, the corresponding entry element is left out. Source notes are written with the line-space of 1.0. A blank line must be left between two entries of sources.
For books,the following obligatory data are included in the list of sources:
Author(s). Year of Publication. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Cunningsworth, A. 1995. Choosing Your Coursebook.Oxford: Heinemann.
For books carrying no individual author’s name,the editor, compiler or an organization
given on the title page of the book may serve as an author. Comma and the
corresponding abbreviation ed. or comp. follow the name of the editor or the compiler:
Celce-Murcia, M., ed.1991. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Second Edition. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
For books without authors or responsible editors or compilers,the title is used to arrange the entries in order:
Chicago Manual of Style. 1993. 14th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
For books with two or more authors,the reference list must give the full names of all the authors in the normal order by separating the names of two authors by a comma or and. The names of authors are given in the order they are presented on the title page.
Adams, M. J. and Collins, A. 1979. A schema-theoretic view of reading: New directions in discourse processing. Norwood, N. J.: Ablex.
The entry for a periodical publicationconsists of the following obligatory elements:
Author(s) of Article. Year of Publication. Title of Article: Subtitle of Article. Title of Journal, Magazine or Newspaper, Volume Number (Issue Number) or Date of Publication, Page number(s).
Harmer, J. 2001. Coursebooks: a human, cultural and linguistic disaster? Modern English Teacher, 3, 5-10.
To indicate manuscripts and unpublished sources(i.e. a dissertation, thesis, speech, lecture, letter, diary, internal corporate documents, interview etc.) on the reference list, the following information is, as a rule, included:
Author(s) of Document. Year of Document. Title of Document: Subtitle of Document. Type of Document, Depository or Location of Document.
Lomp, R. 2002. Interactive Reading Strategies. Bachelor’s Thesis. Department of English, TU.
For further information on compiling a list of referendes (including the citation of electronic sources) see EBS Manual of Writing Style by Ants Kraus.
Kraus, A. 2007. EBS Manual of Writing Style. EBS University