This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Kazakhstan at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund with figures in millions of Kazakhstani Tenges.
Gross Domestic Product
US Dollar Exchange
Inflation Index (2000=100)
For purchasing power parity comparisons, the US Dollar is exchanged at 59.95 Tenges only.
Kazakhstan's monetary policy has been well-managed. Its principal challenges in 2001 are to manage strong foreign currency inflows without sparking inflation. Inflation has, in fact, stayed under control, registering 9.8% in 2000, and appears likely to be under 10% in 2001. Because of its strong economic performance and financial health, Kazakhstan became the first former Soviet republic to repay all of its debt to the IMF by paying back $400 million in 2000; 7 years ahead of schedule. Overall foreign debt is about $12.5 billion, $4 billion of which is owed by the government. This amounts to 69% of GDP, well within manageable levels.
The upturn in economic growth, combined with the results of earlier tax and financial sector reforms, dramatically improved government finances from the 1998 budget deficit level of 4.2% of GDP to a slight surplus in 2000. Government tax revenues grew from 16.4% of GDP in 1999 to 20.6% of GDP in 2000. In 2000, Kazakhstan adopted a new Tax Code in an effort to consolidate these gains. Its strong financial position also allowed the government to reduce the value-added tax (VAT) from 20% to 16% and reduce social (payroll) taxes as of July 2001. Kazakhstan's stronger budget position and strong export earnings earned it credit ratings upgrades from Moody's, S&P, and Fitch during 2001.
Kazakhstan instituted an ambitious pension reform program in 1998. By July 2001, Kazakhstanis had contributed more than $1 billion to their own personal pension accounts, most of which is managed by the private sector. The National Bank oversees and regulates the pension funds. The pension funds' growing demand for quality investment outlets triggered rapid development of the debt securities market. Pension fund capital is being invested almost exclusively in corporate and government bonds, including Government of Kazakhstan Eurobonds. The Kazakhstani banking system is developing rapidly. Banking systems capitalization now exceeds $1 billion. The National Bank has introduced deposit insurance in its campaign to strengthen the banking sector. Several major foreign banks have branches in Kazakhstan, including ABN AMRO, Citibank, and HSBC. Kazakhstan is also a member of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO).
Oil and gas is the leading economic sector. In 2000, Kazakhstan produced 35,252,000 metric tons of oil (700,000 barrels per day), a 17.4% increase over 1999's 30,025,000 tons. It exported 28,883,000 tons of oil in 2000, up 38.8% from 20,813,000 tons in 1999. Production in 2001 has been growing at roughly 20%, on target to meet the government's forecast of 40,100,000 tons of oil (800,000 barrels per day). In 2000, production reached 11.5 km³ of natural gas, up from 8.2 km³ in 1999.
Kazakhstan has the potential to be a world-class oil exporter in the medium term. The landmark foreign investment in Kazakhstan is the TengizChevroil joint venture, owned 50% by ChevronTexaco, 25% by ExxonMobil, 20% by the Government of Kazakhstan, and 5% by Lukarco of Russia. The Karachaganak natural gas and gas condensate field is being developed by BG, Agip, ChevronTexaco, and Lukoil. The Agip-led Offshore Kazakhstan Consortium has discovered potentially huge Kashagan oil field in the northern Caspian. Kazakhstan's economic future is linked to oil and gas development. GDP growth will depend on the price of oil, as well as the ability to develop new deposits.
Kazakhstan is the third country in the world for uranium production volumes, and it owns the world second biggest uranium reserves after Australia.
It has also the largest silver, zinc and nickel markets in West Asia.
Kazakh exports in 2006
Sherin Suzhikova, Counselor of Kazakhstan's Chamber of Commerce and Industry and Chao yon-chuan, Secretary-General of the Taiwan External Trade Development Council, signed an agreement on 13 October 2006 in Taipei to improve economic relations through "exchanges of market information and visits by trade professionals." TAITRA has an office in Almaty, Kazakhstan.
North Dakotan Lieutenant Governor Jack Dalrymple led an 18-member delegation of the North Dakota Trade Office representing seven North Dakota companies and Dickinson State University on a trip to Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Russia from 22 October to 4 November. Governor John Hoeven said the trip is "part of a larger effort to increase North Dakota's export volume." North Dakota's "total export value is growing at a rate of nearly 18% a year, and companies working with the trade office are seeing export sales grow at an even higher rate."
North Dakota Trade Office Executive Director Susan Geib said, "Agricultural and industrial equipment is in high demand in Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Russia." North Dakota exports mostly machinery to Kazakhstan, the eighth largest destination for North Dakotan exports. North Dakota machinery exports amounted to only $22,000 in 2000, but rose to $25 million in 2005.
Economy of Kazakhstan
1 Tenge = 100 tiyin
CIS, EURASEC, ECO, SCO, WTO(Observer)
58th (2004) 
$118.4 billion (2004)
GDP per capita
GDP by sector
agriculture (7.4%), industry (37.8%), services (54.8%%) (2004)
Pop below poverty line
7.95 million (2004)
Labour force by occupation
agriculture (20%), industry (30%), services (50%) (2002)
oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials
Russia 13.5%, Bermuda 13.4%, the People's Republic of China 10.4%, Germany 9.2%, Switzerland 9.1%, France 6.7%
Russia 33.9%, the People's Republic of China 13.6%, Germany 9.6%, France 6.8% (2004)
13.7% of GDP (2004)
$8.67 billion (2004)
$8.968 billion (2004)
$74.2 million in US assistance programs, 1992-2000 (2004)