Read this article about the role of a manager. Then complete it by putting each phrase below (a-f) in the correct space (1-6).
In the past, many people believed that managers weie there just to provide support for frontline staff. However, our understanding of the manager's function has improved.
We know that managers contribute to performance. But how do they do that, '?
Some experts, argue that the day-to-day work ol the manager consists ot
managing three things: organisation, communication and people.
Let's consider organisation to begin with. Everybody knows that businesses
..................... 2. One of the purposes of the manager, those experts belisve,
is to manage thb change for the benefit of both the business and its people.
Secondly, managing communication is necessary to make everyone in the business share a common purpose 3.
Finally, individuals need to be managed þ ensure that they are motivated to do theii work well 4.
In conclusion, we can see how the three elements of organisation,
communications and motivation in turn..................... 5. The third element
is particularly important. Indeed, there seems to be a strong link between how
well managers carry out their motivational tasks...................... 6. If the
managers fail, then the company fails; it the managers do well, then the company piospers.
a)and how well employees perform
b)and know their own role in achieving that purpose
c)and what exactly do manageis manage
d)and that this work, also gives them personal satisfaction and fulfilment
e)are constantly cnanging and evolving
f)determine the success and profitability of the business
Handling conflicts Reading
□ Vocabulary Ö/ord building
□ Language review Conditionals Ã~| Skills
Negotiating: dealing with conflict ~~ Case study •—J European Campers
Smooth seas do not make skilful sailors.
How good are you at managing conflict? Answer the questions in the quiz below. Then turn to page 138 to find out. Compare your score with a partner.
You are in a meeting. People cannot agret with each other. Do you
b) "fervene and propose something new0 take sides with those you like? suggest a 10-minute break?
Vour two closest friends have an argument and stop speaking to each other. Do you
behave as though nothing has happened0 bring them together to discuss the problem?
c) take the side of one and stop speaking to the other0 talk to each one separately about the situation?
Vou see two strangers. One begins to hit the other.
Your neighbours are playing very loud music late at night. Do you
ask them to turn it down? b do nothing? call the police?
play your own music as loudly as possible?
You are in the check-in queue at an airport. Somebody pushes in. Do you
ask them to go to the back of the queue? say nothing?
complain loudly to everyone about people jumping queues?
report them to an airport official?
A colleague criticises your work. Do you
aj pretend to be an off-duty police officer, aid ask them
consider carefullv what they say?
what is going on?
b; call the police?
t get angry and criticise them?
c) shout at them to stop?
smiie, but wat for an opportunity to get back at
d] walk away quickly?
Work in pairs or small groups. Make a list of common causes of conflict in companies and organisations.
010.1 Eileen Carroll is Deputy Chief Executive of the Centre for Effective Dispute Resolution, an organisation that helps to resolve business conflict Listen to the first part of the interview. Does Eileen mention any of the causes you listed in Exercise A?
010.1 Listen to the first part again and complete each cause of conflict with one word.
• 'expectations about what a contract can deliver
• lack of...................... 2 when expectations are not being met
• 3 badly or not at all
• a change in...................... 4
• change of...................... 5 structures
010.2 Eileen is amediator, i.e. a person who tries to end a disagreement between two people or groups. Listen to the second part of the interview. What are the three key elements that help her resolve business disputes?
Tell your partner about any experience you have of:
1 a conflict which was handled well
2 a conflict which was handled badly.
Discuss these questions.
1 What qualities does a mediator need?
2 Disagreement is a form of conflict. In what ways can it make meetings and
discussions more productive?
Vocabulary file page 157
Work in groups of four. You are going to read some advice about handling conflict. Two of you work on Article A, and two on Article Â (see page 92). In your pairs, match the words from the article (1-4) to their meanings (a-d) before you read. Then discuss the Five pieces of advice and rank them in order of usefulness.
Article A l to jump to conclusions a) not to change your attitude or behaviour
2to move things forward b) to make someone feel unimportant
3to be consistent c) to make a situation better
4to talk down to somebody d) to make a decision too quickly
• Don't set up a meeting if it is something that you can deal with informally. Listen to all sides first, separately, so you can understand each person's views and feelings. Then set up a meeting. Don't jump to any conclusions before you go in.
• Too often, people think about what they want done to the other person. Instead,
you need to get people to think about what they need 15 from the other person and what they can offer the other person to help move things forward.
• When you handle conflict, 20 don't think of it as fighting a batde, but as a service you can of fer your employees. Make sure you are consistent in how you handle conflict
25 across the organisation.
• Try not to talk down to people. Sometimes, managers start treating people like naughty school
30 kids, but that doesn't work.
• You need to check what is motivating people. Sometimes an issue just begins to appear, but it's got
35 deeper roots.
From the Guardian
Article Â l to move things forward
2to get in somebody's shoes
4to jump to conclusions
a)to make a decision too quickly
b)when you treat a person better than others unfairly
c)to make a situation better
d)to try and see things from someone else's point of view
• Try to find a win-win scenario. You want both people to go away
15 happv and for it to be good for die organisation. There must be no favouritism.
• What you really want people to tell you is three things: what's
20 happening, their perception of what's going wrong, and what can be changed.
• Managers shouldn't jump to conclusions. Sometimes a person 25 will come to see them to say they have an issue with someone and they decide what they are going to do without checking with the other person. There are two sides 30 to every story.
From the Guardian
Work with one person from the other pair.
1 In your own words, tell each other about your two most useful pieces of advice.
2 Tell each other if there is any advice in the articles that you do not completely agree with.
Discuss these questions.
1How do people usually deal with personal conflict in your country? In what ways is it different from other countries you know?
2Conflict management often differs from one company to another. How do people handle conflict in your company? How does it differ from other companies?
Vocab la v
Use the correct form of these words to complete the first two columns of the chart. Use a good dictionary to help you.
Opposite meanings of the adjectives above are formed in one of three ways.
a) using a orefix un-, in-, im-;for example, formal, informal.
b) using a different word; for examole,weak, strong.
c) using a paraphrase, e.g. ()not credible, not (very) creative.Complete the right-hand column of the chart with opposites of the adjectives.
Use one of the adjectives or its opposite to complete the following sentences.
1 He gets very angry if people are late for negotiations. He is very ...1Ù.ÔëØ... .
2 She always has ideas and easily finds solutions to problems She is a very person.
3 He never shows anger, enthusiasm or disappointment during a negotiation. He is totally
4 He always agrees with everything his negotiating partner suggests. He is
5 I told him I was feeling really bad, and all he asked was 'Will you be able to meet the deadline?'
How can anyone be so..................... ?
6 He likes people to feel comfortable ^nd relaxed during a negotiation. An atmosphere is very important to him.
Look again at the adjectives and their opposites. Choose what you think are the Lest and worst qualities for a negotiator. Then compare your ideas with a partner and try to reach an agreement.
if + present simple, will + base form ot the verb This describes a possible condition and its probable result. If we meet our sales target, we'll get a bonus. Second conditional
if+ past simple, woula + base form of the verb This describes an unlikely condition and its probable result If he listened more, he'd be a better manager. Conditionals and negotiating Conditionals are often used when negotiating. If you give us an 8% discount, we'll mane a firm order If we increased our order, they'd give us a bigger discount.
a)pay you a higher commission
b)offer you a special discount
c)reduce the price
d)give you a signing-on bonus
e)pav all the transport costs
f)give you a 5% discount
g)deliver within seven days
h)give vou the day off tomorrow
Correct the grammatical mistakes in these sentences.
1If you give us a io% discount, we would place our order today.
2If I would have more money, I would go on a cruise
3If I wil. go to London next week, I'll visit their sa'es office.
4If I would work from home, I would have more time with my children
Combine phrases from columns A and Â to make conditional sentences. For example,If you pay in euros, we'll deliver within seven davs. More than one answer may be possible in each case
a pay in euros
3finish everything tonight
4deliver by the end of the month
5give us a one-year guarantee
6exceed the sales target
7pay all the advertising costs
8sign the contract now
Discuss these questions in pairs.
What would you do if:
1you saw two colleagues having an argument7 wou'dii t get involved
2a colleague criticised you?
3you saw a colleague stealing something?
4your boss never listened to your ideas?
5your boss asked you to work till midnight?
Which of the following are good ways of dealing with conflict in a negotiation?
1Avoid eye contact.
2Smile a lot.
3Sit back and appear relaxed.
4Stop the discussion and come back to it later.
5Say nothing for a longtime.
þ Speak calmly and slowly.
010.3 A union representative meets a general manager. The representative
is angi ó because the company's staff are no longer allowed to use the
company car park. Listen to the conversation and answer these questi ons.
What is the general manager's first suggestion to solve the problem?
Why does the union representative reject the suggestion?
What solution do they finally agree on?
010.3 Listen again and complete the extracts.
1 Look, Tracy, I .md$C&<W<L. what vou're....................... but it just isn't
2 We've got to do something about it. OK.............................................
this?............................................ we keep five spaces for staff, and it's
first come, first served?
3 There is another........................ How about if th e staff park their cars in
the car park near the station7
4 OK, Tracy. What if we..................... help towards the cost? We
...................... be able to pay. say, 30 per cent.
Discuss wnether the extracts in Exercise Ñ are examples ofcanning people
Negotiating: dealing with conflict
6Say'I sse what you mean.'
7Find out why the other side is unhappy.
8Focus on the issues, not on personalities
9Say something humorous.
downor creating solutions.
I unaerstand what you're saying. I can see your point of view. Well, I know/see what you mean Why don't we come back to that later? Let's have a break and come Dack with
some fresh ideas. You don't have to worry about...
A compromise could be to ... How about if ... What if...
Let's look at this another way. Another possiDinty is...
Closing a negotiation
Let's see what we've got.
Can I gn over what we've agreed?
Let's go over the main points again.
OK, I think that covers everythirg.
We've got a deal.
Fine. Right. That's it then.
Work in pairs. Role-play this situation.
One day staff find that prices have risen by over 50% in the staff restaurant. This is because the company has stopped subsidising all drinks and meals. Their union representative meets the general manager to discuss the situation. You are either:
the union representative (turn to page 140)orthe general manager (turn to paije 144).
A pro Hf 'a1- ffij'
Todd Foster became Marketing Manager of European Campers a year ago. The company, which was founded by Charles Holden, its Chief Executive, is based in Bordeaux, France. It makes and sells camping and outdoor equipment.
Todd, aged 34, is an American with a Master's in Business Administration (MBA). Since Todd joined the company two vears ago, profits have risen dramatically and the company is enjoying great success.
Olivier Moyon has been with the company 12 years, and everyone agrees thai he is a brilliant salesman. His results are outstanding. In fact, the sales from his area amount to 24% of the firm's total sales. Unfortunately, Olivier is very difficult to manage. Todd cannot control him properly and this is causing problems. Here are some examples of Olivier's unacceptable behaviour.
Two weeks ago, Olivier got a large order from a department store chain. The goods had to be delivered by the end of the month, at the latest. However, the Production Manager, Jacques Picard, told him that he could not produce the goods and deliver them by that date. Olivier became verv angry and was extremely rude to him. Jacques complained to Todd about Olivier's behaviour Jacques explained that a very good customer had placed a very large order, and this order had to be given priority. Jacques ended the conversation by saying, 'Olrwei may be a good salesman, but he's rude and cares only about himself. He's impossible to work with.'
You are negotiating as either:
• Charles Holden, Chief Executive (turn to page 138) or
• Todd Foster, Marketing Manager (turn to pag? 140)
You disagree about how to handle the problem with O'ivier Moyon Try to negotiate a suitable solution. Read your role card, prepare for your meeting and then negotiate a solution to the problem.
Meet as one group and compare the decisions you have taken. Try to persuade your colleagues that your solution was the best.