What surprised Conway about the monastery was that it
A had bath tubs and central heating.
¬ was traditionally furnished,
— had elements of two cultures.
D was comfortable and the people were friendly.
7 As a result of Conway's time in China, he
A knew the monastery was not from the Eastern world.
¬ preferred to be in the monastery rather than in a big city.
— did not find the food at the monastery strange.
D did not really feel at home at the monastery.
8. Choose the right words to complete the sentences.
1. Suddenly I hit (on/out) a radical solution to the problem. 2. If you criticize the way James works, he is sure to hit (back/for). 3. Some companies would be hit (at/for) millions of dollars in fine.4. In her speech she hit (on/out) against the club's petty rules.5. He didn't see the people attacking him, he just hit (back/out) wildly in all directions. 6. They accused him of not having done enough, and he hit (back/out) at their claims. 7. It was clear that sooner or later the police would hit (at upon) the truth. 8. In his article the journalist hit (back out) at racism. 9. The sneer was obvious, but he didn't hit (for/out). 10. Colin never starts a fight, but if somebody hits him, he hits them (back on).
9. Phrasal verbs
a) Fill in the missing particle (back, on,oroff) in these sentences.
1 I lent that book to George last week, but he hasn't given it _____yet.
2 The police have sealed ___ the street where the attack took place.
3 When you've finished with the book please pass it ______ to the next student.
4 Louis got into trouble for answering his teacher _____ when she told him off in class.
5 Although it was very late we decided to push ______ to the next village.
6 The road branches ______ to the left a little way up ahead.
b) Fill the blanks with the correct particle.
1 Business is pretty bad these days. A lot of workers have been laid ______ (over, off, down)
2 "U.S." stands _______ United States. (out, to, for)
3 I can't figure ______ how to use this gadget. (up, out, for)
4 Sue came ________ the letter while she was cleaning her room. (to, across, for)
5 I'm sure that story wasn't true. I think Pete made it_______ (up, for, in)
6 She was offered a job in Dallas, but she decided to turn it_______ (over, up, down)
7 Alex dropped out ____school when he was 16 years old. (for, of, from)
8 Please write ______ your address and phone number. (down, over, away)
10. Read the text. Complete it with the correct words derived from the words in bold on the right.
The 1. ____ of the arts in America - music, dance, architecture, the visual arts and literature - has been marked by a 2. ____between two strong sources of 3. ____: European sophistication and domestic 4. ___. Frequently, the best 5. ________ artists have managed to use both sources. Until the 20th century, serious music in America was shaped by 6. ____ stan≠dards. A 7. ______ exception was the music of composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829ó1869), son of a
8. ____ father and a Creole mother. His music is full of 9. ____ melodies and rhythms he had heard in his native New Orleans. He was the first 10. ____ in the country to achieve international
11. _____, but his early death contributed to his relative 12. _____.
11. Match the two clauses to get ten English proverbs.
1. If it were not for hope,
2. If there were no clouds,
3. If the blind lead the blind,
4. If ifs and ans were pots and pans,
5. If each swept before his own door,
6. If the cap fitted,
7. If I were older,
8. If two men rode on a horse,
9. If one sheep leapt over the ditch,
10. If wishes were horses,
a) beggars would ride.
b) there would be no work for tinkers.
c) I would wear it.
d) I would be wiser.
e) we should not enjoy the sun.
f) all the rest would follow.
g) we would have a clean city.
h) the heart would break.
i) one would have to ride behind.
j) both would fall into the ditch.
12. Read the text. As you read, make two lists of words: the names of composers and music words. Get ready to say what the words mean. If necessary, use the dictionary.
The Middle Ages
After the collapse of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, Western Europe entered a time known as "The Dark Ages" ó a period when invading hordes of Vandals, Huns, and Visigoths overran Europe. These years were marked by constant warfare, the absence of a Holy Roman Emperor, and the virtual disappearance of urban life. Over the next nine centuries, the newly emerging Christian Church came to dominate Europe, administering justice, instigating "Holy" Crusades against the East, establishing Universities, and generally dictating the destiny of music, art, and literature. It was during this time that Pope Gregory I is generally believed to have collected and codified the music known as Gregorian Chant, which was the approved music of the Church. Much later, the University at Notre Dame in Paris saw the creation of a new kind of music called organum. Secular music was performed throughout Europe by the troubadours of France.
Generally considered to be from 1420 to 1600, the Renaissance (which literally means "rebirth") was a time of great cultural awakening and a flowering of the arts, letters, and sciences throughout Europe. With the rise of humanism, sacred music began for the first time to break free of the confines of the Church, and a school of composers trained in the Netherlands mastered the art of polyphony in their settings of sacred music. Of course, secular music thrived during this period, and instrumental and dance music was performed in abundance, if not always written down. It was left for others to collect and notate the wide variety of irrepressible instrumental music of the period. The late Renaissance also saw in England the flourishing of the English madrigal, the best known of which were composed by such masters as John Dowland, William Byrd, Thomas Morley and others.
The Baroque Age
Named after the popular ornate architectural style of the time, the Baroque period (1600 to 1750) saw composers beginning to rebel against the styles that were prevalent during the High Renaissance. Many monarchs employed composers at their courts, where they were little more than servants expected to churn out music for any desired occasions. The greatest composer of the period, Johann Sebastian Bach, was such a servant. Yet the best composers of the time were able to break new musical ground, and in so doing succeeded in creating an entirely new style of music. It was during the early part of the seventeenth century that the genre of opera was first created by a group of composers in Florence, Italy, and the earliest operatic masterpieces were composed by Claudio Monteverdi. The instrumental concerto became a staple of the Baroque era, and found its strongest exponent in the works of the Venetian composer Antonio Vivaldi. Harpsichord music achieved new heights, due to the works of such masters as Domenico Scarlatti and others. Dances became formalized into instrumental suites and were composed by virtually all composers of the era. But vocal and choral music still reigned supreme during this age, and culminated in the operas and oratorios of German-born composer George Frideric Handel.