Speak about the problem of keeping discipline at school. (tape Problem Children)
To begin with I’d like to say that all teachers want to have well-mannered and disciplined pupils. But the fact is that teachers in some secondary schools in Britain are worried that their jobs may become impossible. Shortly, unless something can be done to restore discipline in the classrooms in the problem schools, mostly in large cities, a small minority of teenage pupils deliberately disrupt lessons to such an extent that the teachers can no longer teach their classes effectively.
The point I want to stress here is that it would be unfair to blame only teachers for disciplinary problems in schools. Some within the teachers’ unions consider that the permissive nature of the modern society is responsible. Small children who are continually encouraged to express their individuality without restriction are naturally reluctant to accept school discipline when they grow older.
Further more nowadays there area great number of new modern teaching techniques which first of all direct to develop an ambitious, creative, free personality who can express his own individuality and who is expected to be treated with respect and tolerance.
But on the other hand these techniques which appear to stress personal enjoyment at the expense of serious academic work might be teaching the child to put his own selfish interests before his duties to the community in which he lives.
To my mind the root of all evil is hidden in family relations. Nowadays parents are very busy and pay little attention to their offsprings. Supposing that school must not only teach them but also bring up them. Perhaps the problem can be solved by improving facilities for the psychological guidance of these difficult children or by better co-operation between the schools and the parents.
Parents should set an example and take an active interest in their children’s school life. It means not only to attend to parents’ meetings what is very essential too but also take part in outclass activities (it may be some kinds of traveling or sport competitions) and of course to know not only their children’s problems but also problems of the class and school and try to help if it is possible.
In conclusion I want to stress the point that I truly believe that in this case a school could create a happy friendly ambition, well-trained pupil, who will be a success in future.
14. Speak about the fall of man and its consequences for mankind as treated in the Bible. ("The Fall of Man").
The Lord God let Adam and Eve live in the Garden of Eden. They were to tend and keep the garden. But the Lord God commanded the man saying, "Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat, but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die".
The serpent was more cunning than any beast of the garden. And he said to the woman, "Has God indeed said that you should not eat of every tree of the garden?" The woman replied that they could eat the fruit of all trees in the garden except of the tree which was in the middle of the garden because they could die. Then the serpent said to the woman, "You will not surely die, because in the day you eat it your eyes will be opened and you will be like God, knowing good and evil."
Eva could not resist the temptation. So when she saw that the tree was good for food, pleasant to the eyes and could make one wise, she took of its fruit and ate, she also gave one to her husband and he ate too.
Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they saw knew that they were naked. And they sewed fig leaves together and covered themselves.
When they heard God walking in the garden they hid themselves from his presence among the trees of the garden.
Then God called to Adam and asked where he was. Adam said that they had head the voice of God in the garden and decided to hide themselves because they were afraid their nakedness.
Then God understood that Adam and Eve had eaten from the tree of the knowledge, good and evil. Eve had to confess that the serpent deceived her and that Adam and she ate from that tree.
God said to the serpent, "Because you have done this, you are cursed more than all cattle and every beast of the field; you shall go on your belly and eat dust all the days of your life."
God said that he would also put enmity between the serpent and all people.
He told the woman that she would give birth to children in pain and her husband would rule over her. The Lord God decided that the curse for Adam would be the ground, that he would toil it all the days of his life and eat bread in the sweat of his face.
In the end God sent Adam and Eve to till the ground from which they were taken.
15. Give an account of current views on smoking in Britain and the USA. (tape)
To begin with, I would like to say that for many people smoking is associated with good living; they think social contacts are made easier and it brings many psychological benefits: relieves stresses of everyday life, provides consolation when we are worried, excited, or bereaved.
Nevertheless, smoking is a very serious and urgent problem in our society (so-called hot issue) which has been causing debates since the old days.
Today a great amount of people is addicted to smoking and get through about 15 cigarettes a day. It is strange but they seem not to believe what harm they do to their health.
Another point is that smoking is a very common and widespread way for teenagers to demonstrate their individuality and independence from society. They also consider that it can make them look grown-up and cool. They may think it is the way of joining the crowd and standing out in the crowd. However, they are mistaken.
Moreover, there is a strong tendency among children to begin smoking at quite a young age. In addition, the consequences are dreadful and terrible.
I also want to draw your attention to young girls who are addicted to smoking. I personally think that is the most dangerous problem because these girls make two evils: they damage not only their health, but they also run a risk of damage to their unborn children. Later it surprises them why they have disfigured sick children with poor mental development, who very often have heart diseases and need to be operated on just after the birth.
Moreover it sounds strange but many people seem not to believe that there is a definite link between smoking and heart diseases and lung cancer. And smoking damages the brain cells.
So what is it in cigarette smoke that is harmful? Chemical called nicotine is a substance that causes addiction. It is a stimulant that increases the pulse rate and raises blood pressure.
Cigarette smoke also contains tar – a major factor for causing cancer.
And now I want switch your attention to another aspect of this serious problem. He fact is that a majority of smokers don’t feel any guilty in public places where non-smokers have to put up with it, revolt against it and stick up for their rights.
The general trend is that non-smokers are very vehement, very adamant. They usually claim that it is essential to ostracize smokers and put them in separate parts in restaurants or in airplanes or on the whole to ban smoking.
We cannot but admit that to ban smoking after so many hundreds of years of using it is an extremely difficult thing. Moreover, it is unjust, unfair, illegal, ineffective, and discriminating.
To my mind, control of this problem must depend on education – the upbringing of children no matter at home in the family or at school should include the knowledge oh the influence of smoking on people’s health. From my point of view it is the most reasonable and fair method which can solve these problems.