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Demographics of the United States

Population of the UK

The estimated population of the United Kingdom in the 2011 census was 63.182 million of whom 31.029m were men and 32.153m women.[16]

Based on the 2011 census the population of England was 53.012m (84% of the UK), Scotland was estimated at 5.295m (8.4%), Wales was 3.063m (4.8%) and Northern Ireland 1,811m (2.9%).

There are 13 urban areas which exceed 500,000 inhabitants, these being centred on London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds and Bradford, Southampton and Portsmouth, Sheffield, Liverpool, Leicester,Manchester, Belfast, Bristol, Newcastle upon Tyne and Nottingham.[17]

Age structure

The key features of the age distribution profile for the UK were summarised in December 2012 by the Office for National Statistics in terms of peaks and wide bands of the pyramid reflecting high numbers of births in previous years particularly for people aged 6064 born following the Second World War and those aged 4049, born during the 1960s baby boom. There is a smaller number of children aged five to nine years than ten years ago which is a consequence of low numbers of births at the beginning of the 21st century, and the broadening of the pyramid in the 04 years category is due to a higher numbers of births in recent years. At older ages, females outnumber males, reflecting the higher life expectancy of females. At younger ages there are more males than females, reflecting that there are slightly more boys than girls born each year.[18]

Population forecast

The UK Office of National Statistics forecasted in 2011 that by 2035, the UK's population is expected to increase to just over 73 million people. This is an average annual growth rate of 0.6% per annum. In 2010 the average (median) population age was 39.9 projected to increase to age 42.2 by 2035. The population growth between 2011 and 2020 of the constituent countries of the UK vary. For England it is 8%, Northern Ireland 6%, and Scotland and Wales 5%.[19]

Fertility

In 2008 the UK's total fertility rate (TFR) was 1.96 children per woman,[22] below the replacement rate, which in the UK is 2.075.[23] In 2001, the TFR was at a record low of 1.63, but it has increased each year since. The TFR was considerably higher during the 1960s 'baby boom', peaking at 2.95 children per woman in 1964.[24]

In 2010, England and Wales TFR rose to 2.00.[25] TFR in England in 2009 was 1.96.[26] In Scotland however TFR is lower: in 2009 it was 1.77.[26] Northern Ireland had the highest TFR in 2009, at 2.04; in Wales TFR was 1.93.[26]

The TFR for British residents also varies by country of birth. In England and Wales in 1996, people born in the UK had a TFR of 1.67, India 2.21 and Pakistan and Bangladesh 4.90, for example.[27]

Religion

The traditional religion in the United Kingdom is Christianity. In England the established church is the Church of England (Anglican). In Scotland, the Church of Scotland (a Presbyterian Church) is regarded as the 'national church' but there is not an established church.



In Wales there is no established church, with the Church in Wales having been disestablished in 1920. Likewise, in Ireland the Church of Ireland was disestablished in 1871. In Northern Ireland and similarly in parts of Scotland, there is a sectarian divide between Roman Catholic and Protestant communities.

In the 2001 Census, rather than select one of the specified religions offered on the Census form, many people chose to write in their own religion. Some of these religions were reassigned to one of the main religions offered, predominantly within the Christian group. In England and Wales, 151,000 people belonged to religious groups which did not fall into any of the main religions. The largest of these were Spiritualists (32,000) and Pagans (31,000), followed by Jain (15,000), Wicca (7,000), Rastafarian (5,000), Bahà'ì (5,000) and Zoroastrian (4,000).

Although the Census 2001 also recorded 390,000 Jedi Knights, making Jedi the fourth-largest "religion" in the UK, this does not confer them any official recognition. In fact, all returns with "Jedi Knight" were classified as "No religion", along with Atheist, Agnostic, Heathen and those who ticked "Other" but did not write in any religion.

An Office for National Statistics survey of 450,000 Britons in 2010 found that 71% are Christian, 4% are Muslim and 21% have no religious affiliation.[43]

Languages

The United Kingdom has no official language.[citation needed] The dominant language, spoken as a first language by 95% of the population, is English. Scots is spoken by around 500,000 people in Scotland and 30,000 in Northern Ireland, where it is called Ulster Scots. Welsh is spoken by around 600,000 people. Scottish Gaelic is spoken by about 60,000 speakers, mostly in Scotland. Cornish is spoken by around 2,500 people. Irish is spoken by about 106,844 speakers in Northern Ireland.

The Polish minority in the United Kingdom estimated over 600,000 people speak mostly Polish at home, Poles are mainly Polish-born immigrants to the UK, although many are those who settled in Britain after the second world war and their descendants. The French language is spoken in the Channel Islands. British Sign Language is also common.

 

Demographics of the United States

As of February 28, 2014, the United States has a total population of 317.6 million,[1] making it the third-most populous country in the world.[2] It is very urbanized, with 82% residing in cities and suburbs as of 2011 (the worldwide urban rate is 52%).[3] California andTexas are the most populous states,[4] as the mean center of U.S. population has consistently shifted westward and southward.[5]New York City is the most populous city in the United States.[6]

The total fertility rate in the United States estimated for 2012 is 1.88 children per woman,[8] which is below the replacement fertility rate of approximately 2.1. Compared to other Western countries, in 2011, U.S. fertility rate was lower than that of France (2.02) and the United Kingdom (1.97).[9] However, U.S. population growth is among the highest in industrialized countries,[10] because the differences in fertility rates are less than the differences in immigration levels, which are higher in the U.S.[11][12] The United States Census Bureau shows population increase of 0.75% for the twelve-month period ending in July 2012. Though high by industrialized country standards, this is below the world average annual rate of 1.1%.[10]

There were over 158.6 million females in the United States in 2009. The number of males was 151.4 million. At age 85 and older, there were more than twice as many women as men. People under 20 years of age made up over a quarter of the U.S. population (27.3%), and people age 65 and over made up one-eighth (12.8%) in 2009.[13] The national median age was 36.8 years.[13] The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who reported "White" or wrote in entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Near Easterner, Arab, or Polish."[14] Whites constitute the majority of the U.S. population, with a total of 223,553,265 or 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. There are 63.7% Whites when Hispanics who describe themselves as "white" are taken out of the calculation. Despite major changes due to illegal and legal immigration since the 1960s and the higher birth-rates of nonwhites, the overall current majority of American citizens are still white, and English-speaking, though regional differences exist.

The American population almost quadrupled during the 20th century at a growth rate of about 1.3% a year from about 76 million in 1900 to 281 million in 2000. It reached the 200 million mark in 1968, and the 300 million mark on October 17, 2006.[15][16] Population growth is fastest among minorities as a whole, and according to the Census Bureau's estimation for 2012, 50.4% of American children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups.[17]

Hispanic and Latino Americans accounted for 69% of the national population growth of 2.9 million between July 1, 2005, and July 1, 2006.[18] Immigrants and their U.S.-born descendants are expected to provide most of the U.S. population gains in the decades ahead.[19]

The Census Bureau projects a U.S. population of 439 million in 2050, which is a 46% increase from 2007 (301.3 million).[20] However, the United Nations projects a U.S. population of 402 million in 2050, an increase of 32% from 2007 .[21] In either case, such growth is unlike most European countries, especially Germany, Russia, and Greece, or Asian countries such as Japan or South Korea, whose populationsare slowly declining, and whose fertility rates are below replacement. Official census report, reported that 54.4% (2,150,926 out of 3,953,593) of births in 2010, were non-Hispanic white. An increase of 0.34% compared to the previous year, which was 54.06%.[22]

In 1900, when the U.S. population was 76 million, there were 66.8 million Whites in the United States, representing 88% of the total population,[26] 8.8 million African Americans, with about 90% of them still living in Southern states,[27] and slightly more than 500,000 Hispanics.[28]

Under the law, the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965,[29] the number of first-generation immigrants living in the United States has quadrupled,[30] from 9.6 million in 1970 to about 38 million in 2007.[31]During the 1950s, 250,000 legal immigrants entered the country annually; by the 1990s, the number was almost one million, and the vast majority of new immigrants have come from Latin America and Asia. In 2009, 37% of immigrants originated in Asia, 42% in the Americas, and 11% in Africa.[32] Almost 97% of residents of the 10 largest American cities in 1900 were non-Hispanic whites.[33] In 2006, non-Hispanic whites were the minority in thirty-five of the fifty largest cities.[34] The Census Bureau reported that minorities accounted for 50.4% of the children born in the U.S. between July 2010 and July 2011,[35]compared to 37% in 1990.[36]

In 2010 the state with the lowest fertility rate was Rhode Island, with 1,630.5 children per thousand women, while Utah had the greatest rate with 2,449.0 children per thousand women.[37] This correlates with the ages of the states' populations: Rhode Island has the ninth-oldest median age in the US 39.2 while Utah has the youngest 29.0.[38]

Population density

The most densely populated state is New Jersey (1,121/mi2 or 433/km2). See List of U.S. states by population density for maps and complete statistics.

The United States Census Bureau publishes a popular "dot" or "nighttime" map showing population distribution at a resolution of 7,500 people,[43] as well as complete listings of population density by place name. [44]

Race and ethnicity

 

Each of the racial categories includes people who identify their ethnicity as Hispanic or Latino.[51] U.S. federal law defines Hispanic or Latino as "those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the Census 2000 or ACS questionnaire - "Mexican", "Puerto Rican", or "Cuban" - as well as those who indicate that they are "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino.""[52]

Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

 


Date: 2015-12-24; view: 867


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