Replace the words in bold type by need not/need I? etc., or a negative or interrogative have to form.
I've been invited to a wedding; but I can't go. Will it be
necessary for me to send a present?
Shall I have to send a present?
1 It isn't necessary for him to go on working. He has already reached retiring age. (He . . .)
2 Was it necessary for you to wait a long time for your bus? ,
3 It isn't necessary for me to water my tomato plants every day.
4 It will be necessary for them to get up early when they go out to work every day.
5 We had to stop at the frontier but we were not required to open our
6 It wasn't necessary to walk. He took us in his car. (We . . .)
7 My employer said, 'I shan't require you tomorrow.' (You .. . come.)
8 It is never necessary for me to work on Saturdays.
9 When I am eighteen I'll be of age. Then it won't be necessary to live at home if I don't want to.
10 New teacher to his class: It isn't necessary for you to call me 'Sir'; call me 'Bill'.
11 Will it be necessary for us to report this accident to the police?
12 When you buy something on the instalment system you are not required to pay the whole price at once.
13 Did you know enough English to ask for your ticket?
It wasn't necessary to say anything. I bought my ticket at a machine.
14 It isn't necessary to buy a licence for a bicycle in England. (We . . .)
15 Is it essential for you to finish tonight?
16 Is it necessary for people to go everywhere by boat in Venice?
17 Will it be necessary for me to sleep under a mosquito net?
18 Most people think that civil servants are not required to work very hard.
19 It wasn't necessary to swim. We were able to wade across.
20 It isn't necessary for you to drive me to the station. I can get a taxi.
21 Our plane was delayed so we had lunch at the airport. But it wasn't necessary to pay for the lunch. The airline gave it to us.
22 Is it obligatory for us to vote?
23 When you were a child were you required to practise the piano?
24 I saw the accident but fortunately it wasn't necessary for me to give evidence as there were plenty of other witnesses.
25 Small boy to friend: It won't be necessary for you to work hard when you come to my school. The teachers aren't very strict.
26 They had plenty of time. It wasn't necessary for them to hurry.
27 Is it necessary for you to take your dog with you everywhere?
28 What time was it necessary for you to leave home?
29 I brought my passport but I wasn't required to show it to anyone.
30 I missed one day of the exam. Will it be necessary for me to take the whole exam again?
31 Is it really necessary for you to practise the violin at 3 a.m.?
32 Everything was done for me. It wasn't necessary for me to do anything.
33 Are French children obliged to go to school on Saturdays?
34 I was late for the opera. ~
Was it necessary for you to wait till the end of the first act before finding your seat?
35 He repaired my old watch so it wasn't necessary for me to buy a new one after all.
36 Were you required to make a speech?
PEG 152, 156, 159
must + perfect infinitive is used for affirmative deductions. can't/couldn't + infinitive is used for negative deductions. needn't + perfect infinitive is used for a past action which was unnecessary but was performed.
Fill the spaces in the following sentences by using one of these forms + the perfect infinitive of the verbs in brackets.
1 Did you hear me come in last night? ~ No, I... (be) asleep.
2 I wonder who broke the wineglass; it... (be) the cat for she was out all day.
3 You . . . (help) him. (You helped him but he didn't need help.)
4 I had my umbrella when I came out but I haven't got it now. -You ... (leave) it on the bus.
5 He ... (escape) by this window because it is barred.
6 I ... (give) £10. £5 would have been enough.
7 I saw a rattlesnake near the river yesterday. ~
You . . . (see) a rattlesnake. There aren't any rattlesnakes in this country.
8 He is back already. ~ He ... (start) very early.
9 He returned home with a tiger cub. -His wife (be) very pleased about that.
10 I bought two bottles of milk. ~
You ... (buy) milk; we have heaps in the house. Ill phoned you at nine this morning but got no answer. ~
I'm sorry. I... (be) in the garden.
12 I left my bicycle here and now it's gone. ~ Someone . .. (borrow) it.
13 When she woke up her watch had vanished. ~ Someone . . . (steal) it while she slept.
14 I've opened another bottle. ~
You . .. (do) that. We've only just started this one.
15 The machine said, 'You weigh 65 kilos,' and I said, 'Thank you.' -You . . . (say) anything.
16 I told him to turn left and he immediately turned right! ~ He... (understand) you.
17 Perhaps he swam across. ~
No, he ... (do) that; he can't swim.
18 Do you remember reading about it in the newspapers? -No, I... (be) abroad at the time.
19 He ... (walk) from here to London in two hours. It isn't possible.
20 He was very sick last night. ~
The meat we had for supper ... (be) good.
21 There was a dock strike and the liner couldn't leave port. ~ The passengers .. . (be) furious.
22 We went to a restaurant and had a very good dinner for £3. ~
You . . . (have) a very good dinner if you only paid £3.
23 I have just watered the roses. ~
You . . . (water) them. Look, it's raining now!
24 That carpet was made entirely by hand. — It... (take) a long time.
25 The door was open. ~
It... (be) open. I had locked it myself and the key was in my pocket.
26 He said that he watered the plants every day. ~
He ... (water) them. If he had they wouldn't have died.
27 He came out of the water with little red spots all over his back. -He ... (be) stung by a jelly-fish.
28 We've sent for a doctor. ~
You . . . (send) for him. I am perfectly well.
29 I've made two copies. ~
You . . . (make) two. One would have been enough.
30 There was a terrible crash at 3 a.m. -
That. . . (be) Tom coming in from his party.
31 I had to get down the mountain in a thick fog. ~ That. . . (be) very difficult.
32 I saw Ann in the library yesterday. ~ You . . . (see) her; she is still abroad.
33 How did he get out of the house? He they were blazing.
34 You . . . (lend) him your map. He has one of his own.
35 I spoke in English, very slowly. ~
You . . . (speak) slowly. He speaks English very fluently.
36 He was found unconscious at the foot of the cliff. He ... (fall) 200 metres;
3 Present and past tenses
28 The simple present tense
Read the following in the third person singular. Do not change the object if it is plural. Note that after certain consonants a final es is pronounced as a separate syllable. See PEG 12 B: kiss, kisses /kis, kisiz/.
1 They wish to speak to you. (He)
2 Buses pass my house every hour. ^3 They help their father. (He)
4 We change planes at Heathrow.
5 You watch too much TV. (He)
6 They worry too much. (He)
7 I cash a cheque every month. (He)
8 I always carry an umbrella. (She)
9 They wash the floor every week. (She)
10 His sons go to the local school.
11 These hens lay brown eggs.
12 Rubber balls bounce.
13 These figures astonish me. U14 Do you like boiled eggs? (he)
15 These seats cost £10.
16 They fish in the lake. (He) i/17 Elephants never forget.
18 They usually catch the 8.10 bus.
19 They sometimes miss the bus.
20 I mix the ingredients together. f21 The rivers freeze in winter.
22 They fly from London to Edinburgh.
23 .The carpets match the curtains.
24 They realize the danger, f 25 I use a computer.
26 What do they do on their days off? -They do nothing. They lie in bed all day.
27 The boys hurry home after school.
28 They push the door open.
29 They kiss their mother.
30 They box in the gymnasium.
31 They dress well.
32 Your children rely on you.
33 They snatch ladies' handbags.
34 You fry everything.
35 The taxes rise every year.
36 They do exercises every morning.
29 The simple present tense
Read the following (a) in the negative (b) in the interrogative.
In Nos. 2 and 14, have is used as an ordinary verb and should be treated as one.
1 You know the answer.
2 He has breakfast at 8.00.
3 He loves her.
4 Some schoolgirls wear uniforms.
5 He trusts you.
6 He tries hard.
7 The park closes at dusk.
8 He misses his mother.
9 The children like sweets.
10 He finishes work at 6.00.
11 He lives beside the sea.
12 He bullies his sisters.
13 This stove heats the water.
14 She has a cooked breakfast.
15 She carries a sleeping bag.
16 He usually believes you.
17 She dances in competitions.
18 You remember the address.
19 She plays chess very well.
20 He worries about her.
21 ThoSe thieves work at night.
22 He leaves home at 8.00 every day.
23 Ann arranges everything.
24 She agrees with you. •
25 Their dogs bark all night.
26 Their neighbours often complain.
27 Tom enjoys driving at night.
28 He engages new staff every Spring.
29 Tom looks very well.
30 They sell fresh grape juice here.
31 He charges more than other photographers.
32 She cuts her husband's hair.
33 They pick the apples in October.
34 The last train leaves at midnight.
35 He relaxes at weekends.
36 She refuses to discuss it.
30 The present continuous tense
Put the verbs in brackets into the present continuous tense. In No. 25, have is used as an ordinary verb and can therefore be used in the continuous tense.
1 She (not work), she (swim) in the river.
2 He (teach) his boy to ride.
3 Why Ann (not wear) her new dress?
4 The aeroplane (fly) at 2,000 metres.
5 What Tom (do) now? He (clean) his shoes.
6 This fire (go) out. Somebody (bring) more coal?
7 It (rain)?-
Yes, it (rain) very hard. You can't go out yet.
8 Why you (mend) that old shirt?
9 You (not tell) the truth. ~
How do you know that 1 (not tell) the truth?
10 Who (move) the furniture about upstairs?-It's Tom. He (paint) the front bedroom.
11 Mrs Jones (sweep) the steps outside her house.
12 What you (read) now? I (read) Crime and Punishment.
13 It is a lovely day. The sun (shine) and the birds (sing).
14 Someone (knock) at the door. Shall I answer it?-I (come) in a minute. I just (wash) my hands.
15 She always (ring) up and (ask) questions.
16 Why you (make) a cake? Someone (come) to tea?
17 Where is Torn?-He (lie) under the car.
18 Can I borrow your pen or you (use) it at the moment?
19 You (do) anything this evening? ~ No, I'm not. -Well, I (go) to the cinema. Would you like to come with me?
20 We (have) breakfast at 8.00 tomorrow as Tom (catch) an early train.
21 Ann usually does the shopping, but I (do) it today as she isn't well.
22 Why you (type) so fast? You (make) a lot of mistakes.
23 Mother (rest) now. She always rests after lunch.
24 They (dig) an enormous hole just outside my gate. -What they (do) that for? -I don't know. Perhaps they (look) for oil.
25 What (make) that terrible noise?-
It's the pneumatic drill. They (repair) the road.
26 The children are very quiet. Go and see what they (do). ~ They (cut) up some £5 notes.
27 What you (wait) for? ~
I (wait) for my change; the boy just (get) it.
28 I can't hear what you (say); the traffic (make) too much noise.
29 She always (lose) her glasses and (ask) me to look for them.
30 Mother: What you (look) at? Something (happen) in the street?
31 Child: Yes. The house opposite is on fire! Come and look. Mother: I can't. I (bath) the babies. Is the Fire Brigade here?
32 Child: Yes. Fire engines (rush) up and the firemen (jump) out and (unroll) their hoses. ë
33 Smoke (pour) from the windows! People (stop) to watch. A policeman (try) to move them on.
34 An old man (climb) out of a first floor window! A fireman (help) him! Two boys (slide) down a rope!
35 A woman (wave) from the attic and a fireman (go) up a ladder to help her!
36 Now he (come) down again! He (carry) a baby! The crowd (cheer!)
31 The simple present and the present continuous
Put the verbs in brackets into the simple present or the present continuous tense.
1 Cuckoos (not build) nests. They (use) the nests of other birds.
2 You can't see Tom now: he (have) a bath.
3 He usually (drink) coffee but today he (drink) tea.
4 What she (do) in the evenings?-She usually (play) cards or (watch) TV.
5 I won't go out now as it (rain) and I (not have) an umbrella.
6 The last train (leave) the station at 11.30.
7 He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him.
8 Ann (make) a dress for herself at the moment. She (make) all her own clothes.
9 Hardly anyone (wear) a hat nowadays. Jj) I'm afraid I've broken one of your coffee cups. ~
Don't worry. I (not like) that set anyway. Ill (wear) my sunglasses today because the sun is very strong.
12 Tom can't have the newspaper now because his aunt (read) it.
13 I'm busy at the moment. I (redecorate) the sitting room.
14 The kettle (boil) now. Shall I make the tea?
15 You (enjoy) yourself or would you like to leave now?-I (enjoy) myself very much. I (want) to stay to the end.
16 How you (get) to work as a rule? -
I usually (go) by bus but tomorrow I (go) in Tom's car.
17 Why you (put) on your coat? -
I (go) for a walk. You (come) with me? -
Yes, I'd love to come. You (mind) if I bring my dog?
How much you (owe) him? -
I (owe) him £5. -
You (intend) to pay him?
19 You (belong) to your local library? -Yes, I do. -You (read) a lot? -Yes, quite a lot. -
How often you (change) your books?-I (change) one every day.
20 Mary usually (learn) languages very quickly but she (not seem) able to learn modern Greek.
21 I always (buy) lottery tickets but I never (win) anything.
22 You (like) this necklace? I (give) it to my daughter for her birthday tomorrow.
23 I won't tell you my secret unless you (promise) not to tell anyone. -I (promise).
24 You always (write) with your left hand?
25 You (love) him?-
No, I (like) him very much but I (not love) him.
You (dream) at night? ~
Yes, I always (dream) and if I (eat) too much supper I (have)
27 The milk (smell) sour. You (keep) milk a long time?
28 These workmen are never satisfied; they always (complain).
29 We (use) this room today because the window in the other room is broken.
He always (say) that he will mend the window but he never (do) it. You (know) why an apple (fall) down and not up?
32 You (write) to him tonight? -
Yes, I always (write) to him on his birthday. You (want) to send any message?
33 Tom arid Mr Pitt (have) a long conversation. I (wonder) what they (talk) about.
34 You (believe) all that the newspapers say? -No, I (not believe) any of it. -Then why you (read) newspapers?
35 This car (make) a very strange noise. You (think) it is all right? -Oh, that noise (not matter). It always (make) a noise like that.
36 The fire (smoke) horribly. I can't see across the room. -I (expect) that birds (build) a nest in the chimney. -Why you (not put) wire across the tops of your chimneys? -Tom (do) that sometimes but it (not seem) to make any difference.
32 The simple present and the present continuous
Put the verbs in brackets into the simple present or present continuous tense.
1 What Tom (think) of the Budget? ~ He (think) it most unfair. ~ I (agree) with him.
2 What this one (cost)?-It (cost) forty pence.
3 You (hear) the wind? It (blow) very strongly tonight.
4 You (see) my car keys anywhere? -No, I (look) for them but I (not see) them.
5 He never (listen) to what you say. He always (think) about something else.
6 This book is about a man who (desert) his family and (go) to live on a Pacific island.
7 You (understand) what the lecturer is saying? ~ No, I (not understand) him at all.
8 What you (have) for breakfast usually? ~
I usually (eat) a carrot and (drink) a glass of cold water.
9 When the curtain (rise) we (see) a group of workers. They (picket) a
factory gate. 10 Why you (walk) so fast today? You usually (walk) quite slowly. -
I (hurry) because I (meet) my mother at 4 o'clock and she (not like)
to be kept waiting. Ill (wish) that dog would lie down. He (keep) jumping up on my lap. -
I (think) he (want) to go for a walk.
12 You (recognize) that man? ~
I (think) that I have seen him before but I (not remember) his name.
13 Look at that crowd. I (wonder) what they (wait) for.
14 This message has just arrived and the man (wait) in case you (want) to senfl a reply.
15 Stop! You (not see) the notice? ~
I (see) it but I can't read it because I (not wear) my glasses. What it
It (say) 'These premises are patrolled by guard dogs'.
16 She always (borrow) from me and she never (remember) to pay me back.
17 You (need) another blanket or you (feel) warm enough?
18 It (save) time if you (take) the path through the wood? -No, it (not matter) which path you take.
19 I (save) up because I (go) abroad in July.
20 I (think) it is a pity you don't take more exercise. You (get) fat.
21 The plane that you (look) at now just (take) off for Paris.
22 Tom never (do) any work in the garden; he always (work) on his car.
23 What he (do) to his car now? ~ I (think) he (polish) it.
24 That film (come) to the local cinema next week. You (want) to see it?
25 How Peter (get) on at school? -Very well. He (seem) to like the life.
26 Why Mrs Pitt (look) so angry?-
Mr Pitt (smoke) a cigarette and (drop) the ash on the carpet.
27 This is our itinerary. We (leave) home on the 8th, (arrive) in Paris on the 9th, (spend) the day in Paris, and (set) out that night for Venice. -
That (sound) most interesting. You must tell me all about it when you (get) back.
28 This story is about a boy who (make) friends with a snake which he (find) in his garden. Then he (go) away but he (not forget) the snake and some years later he (return) and (look) for it.
29 He (find) the snake who (recognize) its old friend and (coil) round him affectionately. But, unfortunately, the snake is by now a full-grown boa-constrictor and its embrace (kill) the poor boy.
30 The snake (feel) sorry about this? -I (not know). The story (end) there.
31 How you (end) a letter that (begin), 'Dear Sir'? -
I always (put), 'Yours truly', but Tom (prefer) 'Yours faithfully'.
32 What the word 'catastrophe' (mean)?-It (mean) 'disaster'.
33 What you (wait) for?-
I (wait) for the shop to open. -
But it (not open) till 9.00.-
I (know) but I (want) to be early, as their sale (start) today.
34 Why you (smoke) a cigar, Mrs Pitt? You (not smoke) cigars as a rule. -
I (smoke) it because I (want) the ash. This book (say) that cigar ash mixed with oil (remove) heat stains from wood.
35 Who (own) this umbrella?-
I (not know). Everybody (use) it but nobody (know) who (own) it.
36 You (mind) if I (ask) you a question? -That (depend) on the question. -It (concern) your brother. -I (refuse) to answer any question about my brother.
33 The simple past tense
Put the verbs in the following sentences into the simple past tense.
1 I go to work by bus.
2 I meet her on Tuesdays.
3 He always wears black.
4 I make cakes every week.
5 She gets up at 6.30.
6 He understands me.
7 He shuts the shop at 6.00.
8 She speaks slowly.
9 He leaves the house at 9.00.
10 I read a chapter every night.
11 You eat too much.
12 I see him every day.
13 Tom sings in the choir.
14 He cries when he is hurt.
15 Who knows the answer?
16 I think I know it.
17 The curtain rises at 8.00.
18 He takes the dog out twice a day.
19 We buy them here.
20 I dream every night.
21 Bluetits often lay eggs in that nesting box.
22 He often feels ill.
23 I know what he wants.
24 I usually pay him £5.
25 His dog always bites me.
26 It smells odd.
27 It costs 30p.
28 My back hurts.
29 I lie down after lunch.
30 We drink water.
31 His roses grow well.
32 He rides every day.
33 He often falls off .
34 These dogs fight whenever they meet.
35 He puts up his prices every year.
36 He sleeps badly.
34 The simple past tense
Put the verbs in the following sentences into (a) the negative (b) the interrogative.
1. She saw your brother.
2 We heard a terrible noise.
3 He slept till 10.00.
4 He looked at the picture.
5 They drank all the wine.
6 They set out early enough.
7 She thought about it.
8 The police caught the thief.
9 He hid the letter.
10 She found her watch.
11 His nose bled.
12 My mother chose this hotel.
13 She lent you enough money.
14 Keiko taught Japanese.
15 Tom hurt his foot.
16 He broke his arm.
17 His wife came at 8.00.
18 He lost his wallet.
19 His son wrote a novel.
20 They flew to New York.
21 Ann drew you a map.
22 Tom laid the table.
23 Mr Pitt fell downstairs.
24 She lost her way.
25 He forbade her to leave.
26 I sent it to the laundry.
27 Jack kept the money.
28 He rode slowly.
29 They spent it all.
30 She sold the car.
31 Jean rang the bell.
32 The sun rose at 6.00.
33 The boys ran home.
34 He shook the bottle.
35 He forgave her.
36 They broadcast an appeal for money.
35 The past continuous tense
Put the verbs in brackets into the past continuous tense.
1 Detective: I'm afraid I must ask you both what you (do) yesterday at
Mr X: I (play) chess with my wife.
Mr Y: I (listen) to a play on the radio.
2 The children were frightened because it (get) dark.
3 It was a fine day and the roads were crowded because a lot of people (rush) to the seaside.
4 The aeroplane in which the football team (travel) crashed soon after taking off.
5 He usually wears sandals but when I last saw him he (wear) boots.
6 The house was in great disorder because he (redecorate) it.
7 The director didn't allow the actors to travel by air while they (work) on the film.
8 The car had nobody in it but the engine (run).
9 Two children (play) on the sand and two fishermen (lean) against an upturned boat.
10 I was alone in the house at that time because Mr Jones (work) in the garage and Mrs Jones (shop).
11 He said that he was the captain of a ship which (sail) that night for Marseilles.
12 Are you going to Rome? I thought that you (go) to Milan.
13 My wife and I (talk) about you the other day.
14 When I first met him he (study) painting.
15 There was a strong smell and the sound of frying. Obviously Mrs Jones (cook) fish.
16 Tom ate nothing for lunch because he (diet). He said that he (try) to lose 10 kilos.
17 Who you (talk) to on the telephone as I came in? I (talk) to Mr Pitt.
18 As she (climb) the ladder it slipped sideways and she fell off it.
19 When I first met him he (work) in a restaurant.,
20 He watched the children for a moment. Some of them (bathe) in the sea, others (look) for shells, others (play) in the sand.
21 Where he (live) when you saw him last?
22 She (stand) at the bus stop. I asked her what bus she (wait) for.
23 From the sounds it was clear that Mary (practise) the piano.
24 There had been an accident and men (carry) the injured people to an ambulance.
25 Two men (fight) at a street corner and a policeman (try) to stop them. ~
What they (fight) about?-Nobody seemed to know.
26 Tom (sit) in a corner with a book. I told him that he (read) in very bad light.
27 I went into the garden to see what the boys (do). James (weed) and Alexander (cut) the grass.
28 They had taken off the wheel of the car and (mend>the puncture. I asked when it would be ready.
29 When I arrived at the meeting the first speaker had just finished speaking and the audience (clap).
30 The traffic (make) so much noise that I couldn't hear what he (say).
31 While he (learn) to drive he had twenty-five accidents.
32 He had a bad fall while he (repair) his roof.
33 He was a little mad. He always (try) to prove that the earth was flat.
34 While we (fish) someone came to the house and left this note.
35 The exam had just begun and the candidates (write) their names at the top of their papers.
36 Just as I (wonder) what to do next, the phone rang.
36 The simple past and the past continuous
Put the verbs in brackets into the simple past or the past continuous tense.
1 I lit the fire at 6.00 and it (burn) brightly when Tom came in at 7.00.
2 When I arrived the lecture had already started and the professor
(write) on the overhead projector.
3 I (make) a cake when the light went out. I had to finish it in the dark.
4 I didn't want to meet Paul so when he entered the room I (leave).
5 Unfortunately when I arrived Ann just (leave), so we only had time
for a few words.
6 He (watch) TV when the phone rang. Very unwillingly he (turn) down the sound and (go) to answer it.
7 He was very polite. Whenever his wife entered the room he (stand) up.
8 The admiral (play) bowls when he received news of the invasion. He (insist) on finishing the game.
9 My dog (walk) along quietly when Mr Pitt's Pekinese attacked him.
10 When I arrived she (have) lunch. She apologized for starting without me but said that she always (lunch) at 12.30.
11 He always (wear) a raincoat and (carry) an umbrella when he walked to the office.
12 What you (think) of his last book? ~ I (like) it very much.
13 I (share) a flat with him when we were students. He always (complain) about my untidiness.
14 He suddenly (realize) that he (travel) in the wrong direction.
15 He (play) the guitar outside her house when someone opened the window and (throw) out a bucket of water.
16 I just (open) the letter when the wind (blow) it out of my hand.
17 The burglar (open) the safe when he (hear) footsteps. He immediately (put) out his torch and (crawl) under the bed.
18 When I (look) for my passport I (find) this old photograph.
19 You looked very busy when I (see) you last night. What you (do)?
20 The boys (play) cards when they (hear) their father's step. They immediately (hide) the cards and (take) out their lesson books.
21 He (clean) his gun when it accidentally (go) off and (kill) him.
22 He (not allow) us to go out in the boat yesterday as a strong wind (blow).
23 As I (cross) the road I (step) on a banana skin and (fall) heavily.
24 I still (lie) on the road when I (see) a lorry approaching.
25 Luckily the driver (see) me and (stop) the lorry in time.
26 How you (damage) your car so badly? -I (run) into a lamp-post yesterday. ~ I suppose you (drive) too quickly or were not looking where you (go).
27 As he (get) into the bus it (start) suddenly and he (fall) backwards on to the road.
28 I (call) Paul at 7.00 but it wasn't necessary because he already (get) up.
29 When he (mend) the fuse he (get) a very bad shock.
30 When I (hear) his knock I (go) to the door and (open) it, but I (not recognize) him at first because I (not wear) my glasses.
31 When I came in they (sit) round the fire. Mr Pitt (do) a crossword puzzle, Mrs Pitt (knit), the others (read). Mrs Pitt (smile) at me and (say), 'Come and sit down.'
32 While the guests (dance) thieves (break) into the house and (steal) a lot of fur coats.
33 The next day, as they (know) that the police (look) for them, they (hide) the coats in a wood and (go) off in different directions.
34 She was very extravagant. She always (buy) herself new clothes.
35 Her mother often (tell) her that she (spend) too much money but she never (listen).
36 Whenever the drummer (begin) practising, the people in the next flat (bang) on the wall.
37 The simple past and the past continuous
Put the verbs in brackets into the simple past or past continuous tense.
1 Mr Smith never (wake) up in time in the mornings and always (get) into trouble for being late; so one day he (go) to town and (buy) an alarm clock.
2 To get home he (have to) go through a field where a bad-tempered bull usually (graze).
3 This bull normally (not chase) people unless something (make) him angry. Unfortunately, as Mr Smith (cross) the field, his alarm clock (go) off.
4 This (annoy) the bull, who immediately (begin) to chase Mr Smith.
5 Mr Smith (carry) an open umbrella as it (rain) slightly. He (throw) the umbrella to the ground and (run) away as fast as he could.
6 The bull (stop) and (begin) to attack the umbrella. While he (do) this Mr Smith escaped.
7 When he (awake) she (sit) by the window. She (look) at something in the street, but when he (call) her she (turn) and (smile) at him.
8 Why you (interrupt) me just now? I (have) a very interesting con versa tioiwith Mr Pitt.
9 The murderer (carry) the corpse down the stairs when he (hear) a knock on the door.
10 When I (look) through your books I (notice) that you have a copy of Murder in the Cathedral.
11 As they (walk) along the road they (hear) a car coming from behind them. Tom (turn) round and (hold) up his hand. The car (stop).
12 When I (arrive) at the station Mary (wait) for me. She (wear) a blue dress and (look) very pretty. As soon as she (see) me she (wave) and (shout) something, but I couldn't hear what she (say) because everybody (make) such a noise.
13 The prisoner (escape) by climbing the wall of the garden where he (work). He (wear) blue overalls and black shoes.
14 She said that the car (travel) at 40 k.p.h. when it (begin) to skid.
15 She said that she (not like) her present flat and (try) to find another.
16 While he (make) his speech the minister suddenly (feel) faint. But someone (bring) him a glass of water and after a few minutes he (be able) to continue.
17 When I (see) him he (paint) a portrait of his wife. ~ You (like) it? ~ He only just (start) when I (see) it, so I couldn't judge.
18 I (take) my friend to a murder trial the other day. ~ Who (be) tried?-A man called Bill Sykes. ~ Was he acquitted? -I don't know. They still (listen) to the evidence when we (leave).
19 I (be) sorry that I (have to) leave the party early, because I (enjoy) myself.
20 As we (come) here a policeman (stop) us. He (say) that he (look) for some stolen property and (ask) if he could search the car.
21 I (see) you yesterday from the bus. Why you (use) $ stick? ~
I (use) a stick because I had hurt my leg that morning falling off a
Whose horse you (ride)?
22 The floor was covered with balls of wool. Obviously Mrs Pitt (knit) something.
23 Ann said that she (be) on holiday. I (say) that I (hope) that she (enjoy) herself. /--
24 While he (water) the flowers it (begin) to rain. He (put) up his umbrella and (go) on watering.
25 I just (write) a cheque when I (remember) that I (have) nothing in the bank.
26 I (find) this ring as I (dig) in the garden. It looks very old. I wonder who it (belong) to?
27 When I last (see) her she (hurry) along the road to the station. I (ask) her where she (go) and she (say), 'London', but I don't think she (speak) the truth because there (not be) any train for London at that time.
28 The tailor said, 'Your suit will be ready on Monday.' But when I (call) on Monday he still (work) on it.
29 The teacher (come) into the classroom unusually early and one of the boys, who (smoke) a cigarette, (have) no time to put it out. So he (throw) it into the desk and (hope) for the best.
30 A little later the teacher (notice) that smoke (rise) from this desk. 'You (smoke) when I (come) in?' he (ask).
31 While I (swim) someone (steal) my clothes and I (have to) walk home in my swimsuit.
32 The men (say) that they (work) on the road outside my house and that they (want) some water to make tea.
33 He (say) that he (build) himself a house and that he (think) it would be ready in two years.
34 At 3 a.m. Mrs Pitt (wake) her husband and (say) that she (think) that someone (try) to get into the house.
35 Why you (lend) him that book? I still (read) it. -I'm sorry. I (not know) that you still (read) it.
36 I (come) in very late last night and unfortunately the dog (wake) up and (start) to bark. This (wake) my mother who (come) to the top of the stairs and (say), 'Who is there?'
I (say), 'It is me,' but she (not hear) me because the dog (bark) so loudly, so she (go) back to her room and (telephone) the police.
38 The present perfect tense
Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect tense, and fill the spaces by repeating the auxiliary.
You (wash) the plates? -Yes, I...
Have you washed the plates? ~ Yes, I have.
You (see) him lately? -No, I...
Have you seen him lately? ~ No, I haven't.
1 Where you (be)? ~ ' . ' I (be) to the dentist. ''...-.
2 You (have) breakfast? — • Yes, I...
3 The post (come)?-
Yes, it. >.-. -A You (see) my watch anywhere? ~
No, I'm afraid I . :,U^ \-.'
5 Someone (wind) the clock? -Yes, Tom. ã,
6 I (not finish) my letter yet.
7 He just (go) out.
8 Someone (take) my bicycle.
9 The phone (stop) ringing.
10 You (hear) from her lately?- '• No, I...
11 I just (wash) that floor.
12 The cat (steal) the fish.
13 You (explain) the exercise? ~ Yes, I...
14 There aren't any buses because the drivers (go) on strike.
15 You (have) enough to eat? ~ Yes, I (have) plenty, thank you.
16 Charles (pass) his exam? ~ Yes, he ...
17 How many bottles the milkman (leave)?-He (leave) six.
18 I (live) here for ten years.
19 How long you (know) Mr Pitt? -I (know) him for ten years.
20 Would you like some coffee? I just (make) some.
21 Mary (water) the tomatoes? -Yes, I think she . . .
22 You (not make) a mistake? -No, I'm sure I...
23 Why you (not mend) the fuse?-I (not have) time.
24 You (dive) from the ten-metre board yet?-No, I ...
25 You ever (leave) a restaurant without paying the bill?-No, I...
26 I (ask) him to dinner several times.
27 He always (refuse).
28 You ever (ride) a camel?
29 I (b^y) a new carpet. Come and look at it.
30 He (post) the letter?
31 Wh/he (not finish)? He (have) plenty of time.
32 I often (see) him but I never (speak) to him.
33 You ever (eat) caviar? -No, I...
34 We just (hear) the most extraordinary news.
35 The police (recapture) the prisoners who escaped yesterday.
36 I (not pay) the telephone bill yet.
39 The present perfect and the simple past
PEG 175-7, 182-9
(a) Fill the spaces by repeating the auxiliary used in the question, putting it into the negative where necessary.
(b) Put the verb in brackets into the present perfect or the simple past tense.
Have you seen that play? (a) Yes, I ...
Yes, I have.
(b) Yes, I (be) there last night. Yes, I was there last night.
1 Have you wound the clock?
2 Have you ever eaten snails?
3 Has she fed the dog?
4 Have they repaired the road?
5 Have they done their homework?
6 Have you found the matches?
7 Have you made the coffee?
8 Have you been here before?
9 Have you seen him lately?
10 Have you been to the opera this week?
(a) Yes, I...
(b) Yes, I (wind) it on Monday.
(a) No, I...
(b) Yes, I (eat) some at Tom's party last week.
(a) Yes, I think she ...
(b) Yes, she (feed) him before lunch.
(a) No, they ...
(b) They only (repair) part of it so far.
(a) Yes, they (do) it all.
(b) Yes, they (do) it before they left school.
(a) No, I...
(b) No, I (not find) them yet.
(a) Yes, I...
(b) I (make) some yesterday: we can use that.
(a) No, I...
(b) Yes, I (be) here several times.
(a) No, I...
(b) No, I (not see) him since Christmas. *
(a) Yes, I...
(b) Yes, I (go) to Faust on Friday.
11 Have you ever driven this car?
12 Has he missed his train?
13 Have they been through Customs?
14 Has he spoken to her?
15 Have you spent all your money?
16 How much have you saved
17 Has his temperature gone
18 Have you seen his garden?
19 Have you paid the bill?
20 Have you ever flown a plane?
21 Has your dog ever bitten
22 Have you planted your peas?
23 Has he written to the paper?
24 Have you ever drunk vodka?
(a) Yes, I (drive) it once or twice.
(b) Yes, I (drive) it when you were away.
(a) No, he ....
(b) Yes, he ... It (go) five minutes ago.
(a) Yes, they . . .
(b) Yes, their luggage (be) examined at Dover.
(a) Yes, he ...
(b) Yes, he (speak) to her on Friday.
(a) No, I only (spend) half of it.
(b) Yes, I ...
(a) I (not save) anything.
(b) I (save) £3.
(a) No, it...
(b) Yes, it (go) down last night.
(a) No, I (not see) it yet.
(b) I (see) the house on Monday but I (not see) the garden.
(a) Yes, I ...
(b) Yes, I (pay) it while you were away.
(a) No, I...
(b) Yes, I (fly) when I was at university.
(a) Yes, he (bite) a policeman last week.
(b) Yes, he (bite) me twice.
(a) Yes, I (plant) them on Tuesday.
(b) No, I... yet.
(a) Yes, he ...
(b) Yes, he (write) at once.
(a) No, I ...
(b) I (drink) it once in Russia but I (not drink) it since.
40 The present perfect and the simple past
PEG 175-7, 182-9
Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the simple past tense. In some sentences the present perfect continuous (PEG 190) is also possible.
1 This is my house. ~
How long you (live) here? ~_ I (live) here since 1970. V 2 He (live) in London for two years and then (go) to Edinburgh.
3 You (wear) your hair long when you were at school? ~ Yes, my mother (insist) on it.
4 But when I (leave) school I (cut) my hair and (wear) it short ever since.
5 SMkespeare (write) a lot of plays.
6 My brother (write) several plays. He just (finish) his second tragedy.
7 I (fly) over Loch Ness last week. -You (see) the Loch Ness monster?
8 I (not see) him for three years. I wonder where he is
9 He (not smoke) for two weeks. He is trying to give it up.
10 Chopin (compose) some of his music in Majorca.
11 When'he (arrive)?-He (arrive) at 2.00.
12 You (lock) the door before you left the house?
13 I (read) his books when I was at school. I (enjoy) them very much.
14 I can't go out because I (not finish) my work.
15 I never (drink) whisky. ~ Well, have some now.
16 I (write) the letter but I can't find a stamp.
17 The clock is slow.-It isn't slow, it (stop).
18 Here are your shoes; 1 just (clean) them.
19 I (leave) home at 8.00 and (get) here at twelve.
20 I (do) this sort of work when I (be) an apprentice.
21 He just (go) out.
22 He (go) out ten minutes ago.
23 You (have) breakfast yet? ~ Yes, I (have) it at 8.00.
24 I (meet) him last June.
25 You (see) the moon last night?
26 The concert (begin) at 2.30 and (last) for two hours. Everyone (enjoy) it very much.
27 The play just (begin). You are a little late.
28 The newspaper (come)? -Yes, Ann is reading it.
29 The actors (arrive) yesterday and (start) rehearsals early this
30 It (be) very cold this year. I wonder when it is going to get warmer.
31 Cervantes (write) Don Quixote.
32 We (miss) the bus. Now we'll have to walk.
33 He (break) his leg in a skiing accident last year.
34 Mr Pound is the bank manager. He (be) here for five years.
35 Mr Count (work) as a cashier for twenty-five years. Then he (retire) and (go) to live in the country.
36 You (be) here before? -
Yes, I (spend) my holidays here last year. -You (have) a good time? ~ No, it never (stop) raining.
41 The present perfect and the simple past
PEG 175-7, 182-9
Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or simple past tense.
Fill the spaces by repeating the auxiliary used in the preceding verb.
You (see) Mary on Monday? ~
Yes, I ...
Did you see Mary on Monday?-
Yes, I did.
1 Where is Tom? -
I (not see) him today, but he (tell) Mary that he'd be in for dinner.
2 I (buy) this in Bond Street. ~ How much you (pay) for it? ~ I (pay) £100.
3 Where you (find) this knife? ~ I (find) it in the garden. ~ Why you (not leave) it there?
4 I (lose) my black gloves. You (see) them anywhere? ~ No, I'm afraid I ....
When you last (wear) them?-I (wear) them at the theatre last night. ~
Perhaps you (leave) them at the theatre.
5 Do you know that lady who just (leave) the shop? ~
Yes, that is Miss Thrift. Is she a customer of yours? ~
Not exactly. She (be) in here several times but she never (buy) anything.