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The Present Participle as Adverbial Modifier of Attendant Circumstances

When used as an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances, the present participle denotes some action or event parallel to the action or state denoted by the main verb:

The men sat round the table playing cards. (The men sat round the table and they were playing cards.)

He rode away whistling.

Jane sat on the sofa smoking.

Exercise 7. Rewrite the sentences using participles as adverbial modifiers of attendant circumstances:

1.He was sitting in the garden and he was drinking his tea. 2.She was lying on her bed and she was reading a book. 3.He was walking down the street and he was whistling a tune. 4.I was sitting in the park. I was writing a letter. 5.The woman was driving along. She was listening to her car radio. 6.He came into the room. He was carrying a suitcase. 7.They were walking down the street. They were holding hands.

Exercise 8. Complete the sentences using participles as adverbial modifiers of attendant circumstances:

1.She walked down the hill ... 2.He went out quickly.... 3.He laughed .... 4.He stood there ... 5.He leant on the window-sill ...

 

2.4.The Present Participle as Adverbial Modifier of Result

He fired, wounding one of the bandits. (He fired and as a result wounded one of the bandits.)

I fell, striking my head against the door and cutting it.

The corporation shut down the plant, leaving many workers unemployed.

They pumped waste into the river, killing all the fish.

 

Note that the result is often not intended.

Exercise 9. Rewrite the sentences using participles as adverbial modifiers of result:

1.In her hurry she stumbled and spilled the milk all over the floor. 2.She fell downstairs and broke her hip. 3.He slipped on some ice and damaged his knee. 4.She backed into a doorway to let the crowds pass by. 5.He went ahead of Nolan and won by 15 seconds.

Exercise 10. Complete the sentences using participles as adverbial modifiers of result:

1.He fell off the ladder, 2.James broke a cup, 3.Doris threw the ball, 4.I stayed at work rather late, 5.The company went bankrupt,

2.5.The Present Participle as Adverbial Modifier of Manner

The adverbial modifier of manner is close in meaning to the adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances. The difference is that the adverbial modifier of manner characterizes the action of the main verb, whereas the adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances denotes a parallel action or gives additional information about the situation.

Compare:

He looked at her, blinking. (He looked at her how? blinking)

(an adverbial modifier of manner)

He came in jumping /limping. (an adverbial modifier of manner)

He looked at her, suppressing a yawn. (He looked at her and at the same time suppressed a yawn.) (an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances)

Exercise 11. Rewrite the sentences using participles as adverbial modifiers of manner:

1.Jack was reciting the poem. He was stammering. 2.My sister spoke. She sounded angry. 3.The plumber worked. He did things quickly. 4.She talked to me. She never raised her voice. 5.He came in. He was limping.



 

Exercise 12. Complete the sentences using participles as adverbial modifiers of manner:

1.She looked at me, 2.He walked, 3.He pronounced words, 4.The team worked, 5.He sang,

 

 


Date: 2015-12-24; view: 2175


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