Linux is an operating system that was initially created as a hobby by a young student, Linus Torvalds, at the University of Helsinki in Finland. Linus had an interest in Minix, a small UNIX system, and decided to develop a system that exceeded the Minix standards. He began his work in 1991 when he released version 0.02 and worked steadily until 1994 when version 1.0 of the Linux Kernel was released. Apart from the fact that Linus is freely distributed, its functionality, adaptability and robustness, has made it the main alternative for proprietary Unix and Microsoft operating system.
Throughout most of the 1990’s, tech pundits, largely unaware of Linux’s potential, dismissed it as a computer hobbyist project, unsuitable for the general public’s computing needs. Through the efforts of developers of desktop management systems such as KDE and GNOME, office suit project OpenOffice.org and the Mozilla web browser project, to name only a few, there is now a wide range of applications that run on Linux and it can be used by anyone regardless of his/her knowledge of computers.
Now Linux is adopted worldwide as a server platform primarily. Its use as a home and office desktop operating system is also on the rise. The operating system can also be incorporated directly into microchips in a process called “embedding” and is increasingly being used this way in appliances and devices.
Hundreds of companies and organizations and an equal number of individuals have released their own versions of operating systems based on the Linux kernel. The current full-featured version is 2.6 (released December 2003) and the development continues.
ESSENTIAL COURSE UNIT ONE I SPEECH PATTERNS
1. If I were you, I should keep an eye on that boy.
(C/: If I am well, I shall have a walking holiday.) If I had time, I should go to the theatre tonight. If we were hungry, we should have a bite. If you did not work enough, you wouldn't get good marks. If Anne were in Moscow, she would ring me up. If the weather were fine, we could go for a walk.
2. I rather like the idea of having a cup of tea then.
I dislike the idea of staying at home on such a fine day.
The children liked the idea of going for a walk.
All of us liked the idea of spending the day off out of town.
We disliked the idea of staying in town the whole summer.
Why don't you like the idea of having dinner at my place?
EXERCISES I. Rewrite these sentences, using Pattern 1:
Example: a) If it is cold, we'll put on our warm coats.
If it were cold, we should put on our warm coats,
b) If my friends come to see me, I'll be very glad. If my friends came to see me, I should be very glad.
I. If the boy is hungry, I'll give him something to eat. 2. If the supper is ready, we'll sit down to table. 3. If I get a good mark for my composition, I'll be happy. 4. If Mary has more free time, she'll read more. 5. If the weather changes, we'll go boating. 6. If I have no opportunity to see him, I'll be very sorry. 7. If it doesn't rain, I shan't have to take my umbrella with me. 8. If she finishes everything on Friday, she won't have to work on Saturday. 9. If you catch a cold, you'll have to stay at home. 10. If the child doesn't do what I tell him, I'll have to punish him.
II. Answer the following questions:
1. What would you do if you were late for your lesson?
2. Where would you go if you had a holiday now?
3. Who(m) would you invite if you arranged a party? 4. How long would it take you to walk home from the University? 5. Which would you prefer to go to, the Art Theatre or the Bolshoi Theatre? 6. Would you feel glad if it were spring now? 7. Would you like to go to the disco after the lessons? 8. What film would you like to see?
III. Rewrite each of these sentences, using Pattern 2:
Example: The girl thought that it would be good to study a foreign language. The girl liked the idea of studying a foreign language. 1. The students thought that it would be useful to work in the lab twice a week. 2. We liked the suggestion that we should visit our sick friend. 3. The children found that it would be interesting to go on an excursion. 4. We thought that it wouldn't be good to stay indoors all day long. 5. Wouldn't you like to go to the theatre tonight? 6. All of us thought that it would be nice to arrange a party at our University. 7. Is there anyone against our spending the holidays in the holiday camp? 8. We thought that it would be good to go to the cinema after the lessons.
V. Act out the dialogue. Make up your own after the model:
Dick: What would you do if you had a boat?
To m: I would sail in it, of course.
Dick: Where would you sail?
Tom: All around the coasts of Britain. I would even try to sail across the Atlantic if my boat were big enough.
Dick: What would you do if your parents didn't let you sail?
Tom: I would run away from home, I suppose. Dick: What would you do if your boat were wrecked in a storm?
Tom: I would get drowned, I suppose.
D i ñ k: It is just as well you haven't got a boat, I suppose.
VI. Explain the meaning of the following sayings and Illustrate them:
1. If it were not for hope, the heart would break. 2. If the pills were pleasant, they would not be gilded. 3. If there were no clouds, we should not enjoy the sun. 4. If things were to be done twice all would be wise.