Software depending on assignment can be divided into the following classes: foundation software, system software, official software, application software
The lowest level of the software represents the foundation software. It is responsible for interaction with basic hardware. Basic program directly are a part of basic hardware and are stored in special chips which are called as read-only memories (ROM).
The application program or application is the program intended for execution of certain user tasks and expected direct user interaction. In the majority of operating systems application programs can't address to computer resources directly, and interact with the equipment and so forth by means of an operating system.
The computer programs written for users or users belong to an application software (application software), for the job to the computer of specific operation. Programs of processing of orders or creation of mailing lists an application software example. Programmers, who write application software, call application programmers.
Classification by type:
1. Software of general purpose: text editors, systems of computer imposition, graphic editors,
2. Software of a special purpose: expert systems, application multimedia (Mediaplayers, program for creation/editing of video, sound, Text-To-Speech and so forth), hypertext systems (Electronic dictionaries, encyclopedias, reference systems), content management systems
3. Software of the professional grade: CAD, AUTOMATED WORKPLACE, MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM, INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM, geoinformation systems, bilingual of system, CRM
Classification by scope of application
1. Application software of the enterprises and organizations. For example, financial management, system of the relations with customers, a network of deliveries. The software of small businesses, and also a software of separate subdividings belongs to this type in the big enterprise also departmental. (Examples: Control of transportation costs, support Service IT)
2. The software provides access of the user to computer devices.
3. Software of infrastructure of the enterprise. Provides the general possibilities for support of software of the enterprises. These are database management systems, e-mail servers, network management and safety.
4. Software of the information worker. Services needs of personal users for creation and information management. It, as a rule, control of time, resources, documentation, for example, text editors, electronic spreadsheets, client programs for e-mail and blogs, personal information systems and media editors.
5. The software for access to content. It is used for access to these or those programs or resources without their editing (however can and include an editing function). It is intended for groups or personal users of a digital content. It, for example, media players, web browsers, auxiliary browsers, etc.
6. The educational software according to the contents is close to software for media and entertainments; however unlike it has accurate requirements for testing of knowledge of the user and progress tracing in study of this or that material. Many educational programs include functions of joint use and polygonal cooperation.
7. Imitative software. It is used for simulation of physical or abstract systems for the purpose of scientific researches, training or entertainment.
8. Instrumental software in the field of media. Provide needs of users which make printing or electronic media resources for other customers, on a commercial or educational basis. These are programs of polygraphed processing, imposition, multimedia processing, HTML editors, editors of digital animation, a digital sound, etc.
9. Application programs for design and construction in gare used by development hardware («Iron») and the software. Envelop automated design (computer aided design CAD), computer-aided design (computer aided engineering CAE), editing and compiling of programming languages, programs of an integrated development environment (Integrated Development Environments), interfaces for application programming (Application Programmer Interfaces).
Editors of documents (text) are programs which are intended for creation and processing of text information. Representatives of editors of documents the programs Multi Edit, Microsoft Word, Wordpad, Word Perfect.
Tabular processors. By operation with the tabular processor on the screen the rectangular table in which cells there can be numbers, explanatory texts and formulas for calculation of data is deduced. Representatives of family of tabular Lotus 1-2-3, SuperCalc, Microsoft Excel, Quatro Pro processors, etc.
Database management systems (DBMS) allow controlling big information arrays databases. Representatives of this class of programs Microsoft Access, Clipper, Paradox and etc.
Graphic editors allow creating and editing figures. Representatives of graphics editors programs Adobe Photoshop, Corel Draw, Paintbrush and etc.
The integrated systems combine possibility of a database management system, the tabular processor, the text editor, system of a business graphics, and sometimes and other possibilities. As a rule, all components of the integrated system have the similar interface that facilitates training to operation with them. Representatives of the integrated systems a packet Microsoft Office and its free analog Open Office,and also Framework, Symphony, Microsoft Works and etc.
Perspective information means are knowledge bases and expert systems. With their help consultations on medical subjects, helps for different services can be given; they help inventors to advise technologists, designers and to give responses, simulating behavior of experts in this or that knowledge domain or professional activity.
Automated design engineering systems (CAD) allow realizing plotting and constructioning of different subjects and mechanisms by means of the computer. Among systems of small and middle class the AutoDesk firm AutoCad system is most popular in a pattern. The Russian packet with similar functions Compass.
In engineering practice special software packages, for example, MatLab, by MatCad, Eureka and etc. can be applied actively.
The information products created in different application programs, integrate, using OLE technology Object Linking and Embedding (communication and implementation of objects).
Main concepts of operating systems.
Operating system (OS) the complex of managing directors and processing programs which, on the one hand, appear as the interface between devices of the computing system and application programs, and on the other hand are intended for device management, control of calculating processes, effective distribution of computing resources between calculating processes and the organizations of safe computation. This determination is applicable to the majority of the modern OS of general purpose.
In a logic structure of the typical OS computing system occupies situation between devices with their micro architecture, a machine language and, probably, own (built-in) micro programs on the one hand and application programs with another.
To software developers of OS allows abstracting from details of implementation and functioning of devices, providing minimum necessary feature set.
Operating systems for the PC differ on several parameters. In particular, OS happen:
Single-user and multi-user;
Network and not network.
Besides, the operating system can have the command or graphic multi window interface (or both directly).
One task operating systems allow solving only one problem during every moment of time. Such systems normally allow launching one program in the main mode.
Multitasking systems allow launching at the same time some programs which will work parallels.
The principal difference of multi-user systems from single-user is existence of security features of information of each user from illegal access of other users. It is necessary to note, what not any multitasking system is multi-user, and not any single-user OS is one task.
In recent years the graphic multi window interfaces where required actions and descriptions of objects aren't entered in the form of the text became the actual standard, and are selected from the menu, file lists etc.
Now, with the advent of powerful computers, the wide circulation was received by two OS types. Rather similar OS of Windows family of the Microsoft Company belong to the first type. They multitask also have the multi window graphic interface. In the market of personal computers UNIX type OS compete to Windows. It is multi task multi-user OS with the command interface.
There are also other OS. The known company Apple makes Macintosh computers from the modern MacOS OS. These computers are used preferentially by publishers and artists. The IBM firm makes OS/2 OS. OS/2 operating system of the same class of reliability and protection, as well as Windows NT.
In the majority of the OS computing systems is the main, the most important (and sometimes and single) a part of a system software. From the 1990th the most widespread operating systems are OS of Microsoft Windows family and class UNIX system (especially Linux and Mac OS).