The Spanish established some of the earliest settlements in NA. The first town found by spanishmen in 1565 was called St.Augustine. Later in 1609 Santa Fe in New Mexico was also established by the spanishmen.
However the first beginnings of permanent settlement of NA were nearly a hundred years after Columbus's first voyage .The Englishman sir Waster Raleigh [roli] named the whole of NA for England and they called this place Virginia in honour Elisabeth1. The first English colonists were mostly adventurers and impoverished gentlemen incapable of working on the land. That’s why the early colonists in Virginia were complete failures.
The first successful and permanent settlement in Virginia was established in 1607, this place was called James Town. It was a very typical settlement- a fort, a church, and they began tobacco. English capitalists found 2 Virginia companies, a southern one, based on London, and a northern one based on Bristol. By 1619 Virginia had 1000 people .That year was noted for three events 1the arrival of a ship from England with 90 young maidens who were to be given as wives to those settlements who would pay 120 pounds of the tobacco for their transportation. 2the beginning of self-government .On the 30 July in Jamestown .Church met the first legislative assembly on the continent .There were a government, 6 councilors, 2 burgesses (a full right citizens) each from 10 plantations. 3the arrival of Dutch ship with Negro slaves of whom it sold 20 to the settlers. First Negroes appeared in NA.
In 1620 a group of puritans refugees reached the coast of NA in their ship called Mayflower. They landed on Massachusetts coast and founded a settlement there, which they called Plymouth. This was the beginning of the northern English colonists in America .Those people were called the Pilgrim’s fathers .These pilgrims were prosecuted because they denied the primacy of the king and wished to set up their own separate church .The Pilgrim's fathers suffered terrible ¿ of first and half of them died during their first winter ,but those who survived for the first year managed to live and reap the harvest from the land. A year after their arrival and their ship came from England, they celebrated this event, besides the harvest they have gathered, and it was a feast of Thanksgiving. They still celebrate it every november as a public holiday (on the 4th Thursday). Between 1620-1640 the Piligrims fathers were followed by many more shipboards of settlers in New England, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Maryland, North Carolina.
During the same period New Amsterdam was founded from Holland on the small island of Manhattan. The Dutch administration was oligarchic and the colony made rather slow progress.
In 1664 Charles 2 granted the area to his brother, the duke of York. In the summer of 1664 3 worships arrived in port New Amsterdam and English took over the colonies and changed its name to New York. Most of the Dutch settlers sick of dispoted rule made no objections to a change of sovereignty. Meanwhile further south Virginia developed, the settlers were helped by the beginning of the cruel slave trade. The merchants brought slaves from Africa.
The last European settlers come in 1683. This time the Quakers had become the most energetic representatives of England of the puritan traditions. The Quakers called themselves the society or friends. They believed in the quality of men. William Penn was prominent English Quaker led a group of religion sympathies to settle in America. To attract colonies he offered legal terms assuring all that they could obtain land and live in justice and quality. He directed the establishment of Philadelphia his city of brotherly love. The state Pennsylvania bears the name of William Penn's father.
5. THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE: its reasons and results
1 England was busy with wars against France, so the king of England allowed the 13 American colonies a large amount of self-government.
2 In 1763 the war ended and England one control over most of the colonies of NA .But by this time the colonists felt they were Americans .They often traded with other countries ,they felt strong ,they didn’t need the mother-country for protection in wars any more. They were used to freedom and self-government.
3 But the English needed the colonies for economic reasons .They were buying goods from the colonies at lower prices and selling manufactured products at hire prices .They were also charging high taxes on American trade with other countries. England put new taxes on the colonies such as the Stamp act, taxes on printed material (1765).
4 Strict laws made life difficult for the colonists; they could send their products only on their ships. They could send some goods only to England .The colonists were not free to settle the west of Appalachian Mountains and they had to allow British soldiers to live in their homes. The colonists were especially angry about the taxation without representation. They had to pay high taxes, but couldn’t send delegates to England to vote on them, in 1773 England passed the Tea –act (taxes on imported tea).
Against the duty of Tea taxes a party of about 50 citizens of Boston was organized. They disguised as Indians, attacked 3 English ships with Tea and burst open the chests of tea and emptied it into the sea. This event is known in American history as the Boston Tea party .It was the first open act of violence against the English, which heralded the coming of the revolution.
Following the Boston Tea party in 1774 the first continental congress met in Philadelphia , the congress of representatives of all the English colonies of the American continent (except Georgia). It was the first unofficial American government .Arms were being brought illegally and American patriots organized secret military training to prepare the people for armed resistance.
The following year in 1775 the first shorts of war were fired at Lexington, when the red coats were trying to seize an illegal store of arms at Concord. The patriots learned all the British soldiers’ plans to seize the colonial supplies, they were ready for the coming British. The news of the battle at Concord spread around the country and gave the colonies a hope again .It was evident that they could resist England. The War of Independence began with a victorious battle of the colonies against British troops at Lexington and Concord.
Within a few weeks the last royal governments were being overthrown all over the country and the 2d continental congress met again in Philadelphia. But this time as an openly rebellious body which organized the American troops about Boston. The American continental army had appointed George Washington to take command. On the July the 4th in 1776 Congress adopted and proclaimed the Declaration of Independence. The author of this document was Tomas Jefferson, a democratic minded patriot. Thus the war which had began as a war for the rights of Englishman became in a little more than a year a war of Independence.
In the first years of the war Washington’s army suffered several defeats, the American soldiers lacked discipline and military training, the quality of officers was poor, there were financial difficulties. The separate colonies distrusted Congress, were jealous at one another .It was impossible to set up a strong central government .The Americans had practically no navy. But despite these drawbacks they had some advantages: they fought in their vast and populated land; their army was revolutionary, with a fighting spirit. On the other hand English fought 3000 miles from home, it was expensive to transport men and supply, proper strategic management of the English force was impossible.
Results:In 1777 the Americans achieved the 1st great victory of the War at Saratoga. It was a turning point in the whole course of the war. The North was placed under American control .Another direct result of Saratoga was alliance with France, which brought money and supplies, and the navy. Spain and Holland also began to support the Americans .The War continued in the south, here the Americans suffered many defeats, but they won the last battle, which was decisive. The war was practically over but the King George 3 refused to acknowledge the defeat for another 2 years. The peace treaty was finally signed in 1783 .In this year Britain recognized the independence of the USA (13 colonies) .And to the nation all the country between the Atlantic coast and Mississippi. The constitution that was adopted in 1789 was at that time the most democratic constitution in the world.
6. Territorial Expansion of the USA.
1783-1861 - the period of ter.expansion, when the US expanded westwards and the colonisation of the amer.continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific was completed.
Louisiana (1 mln m2)–vast territory from the Middle West to the Gulf of Mexico was bought by the US from the French (Napoleon) for 15 mln $, this transaction was called “LOUISIANA PURCHASE” in 1803 (the size of the US increased by 1/3). The Mississippi was the western boundary and New Orlean (by Spanish officials or government) was very import.to the settlers of Kentucky and Tennessee cuz they sold their farm products there when the port of N.O. was open, but the Spanish used to close it sometimes, American commerce could hardly develop there and Jefferson advised the Ambassador to France to make an offer to Napoleon to buy it for 2 mln $, there was no answer though Nap.thought about the matter thoroughly: to lead the war in Europe he needed money immensely, his losses on the iasland of Santa Domingo were immense, he realised that he could no longer use the territory as he had planned and offered to the Usa not only N.O. but the whole Louisiana. The MEANING: the size of the territory gained was enormous (larger than France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal combined!!!).
Florida was occupied by the US troops in 1811, 8 years later bought from Spain for 5 mln – a purchase by force of arms. 1845 – Texasannexed. 1846 – the Americans entered Oregonterritory and the whole Pacific coast to the North of California was joined to the USA. In the Mexican war (1846-48) half of the Mexican ter.conquered (California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arisona, New Mexico).
By the middle of the 19th ent.the USA reached its present dimensions. Moreover in 1948 The Gold Rush began in California began and people started to move west in search of gold.
7. The Civil War: reasons, economic and social results.
The conflict between 2 antagonistic economic and social systems in the USA: the capitalist System in the north and the Slavery System in the South.(slavery as specific form of am.feudalism) For capitalism to develop slavery should be abolished and political power of planters in the south must be broken + the problem in new territories in the west (slavery or freedom?!), esp. after the Mexican war (1848).
NORTH: industry & manufacture (clothing, furniture), NO slaves, produced expansive products and had the protectionist tax on ones from other countries; larger population=>more representatives in Congress; the Union!; supported Lincoln. SOUTH:agriculture (cotton)=> needed slaves; preferred cheap European products, had smaller population => lost power in the House of Representatives; opposed the Union, created The Confederate States of America; chose Davis Jefferson as the Pr.of Confederation.
1854 – the Republican Party is founded by the northern Capitalists (antislavery and progressive course). 1860 – Lincoln won the Pr.Elections stating that slavery was to continue where it already existed but the new ter-ries were free. Before he took office 11 southern states separated from the Union and formed the Confederate States of Am.with Jefferson Davis as the Pr. April 1861 The Confederate Gov.demanded the evacuation of Fort Sumper in Charlsetone Harbour garnisoned by federal troops. The commander of the fort refused and the southerners opened fire – the war began! The North had the advantage but the South had the support of the br.ruling class cuz it was necessary for the br. cotton industry + talented generals of the south Robert Lee and “stonewall” Jackson + the unity of purpose in the south while the ruling class in the north was confused as Lincoln hesitated to abolish slavery completely. January, 1 in 1863 the EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION was issued (all slaves are FREE!) It was a turning point, cuz the war now had the revolutionary basis. A military turning point was the Battle at Gettysborough in 1863. (famous address of Linc after that: Government of the people, by the people, for the people). In 1864 General Grant was appointed by Linc. as the Commander of the Union Forces=> no doubt as to the victory of the Union, but the south kept on fighting. April,1 in 1861 the northern troops captured Richmond (the capital of the Southern Confederacy). April, 9 in Gen.Lee surrendered to Gen.Grant=the end of the Civil War. 14 April Lincoln – assassinated. Results: 215000 lives, the defeat of the Revolution in the South + abolition of slavery => a slow and long consequence – the reconstruction of the economic and political structure of the Southern States (Henry Johnson – a new Pres.). The Per.of Reconstruction lasted for 12 years, progress of democracy (the Blacks could vote), economic development, bought Alaska in 1867 for 7 mln 200 tsd, in 1869 the first Transcontinental Railway opened the way to a rapid exploitation of the West. By 1890 the Us surpassed Britain and became the leading world power.
8. The War of Independence and the Civil War: differences and similarities.
Difference: basic reasons – W of Ind -> to become a separate powerful state, Civil War-> mostly because of the course of development of the country and different humane rights. War of Ind was between Americans and Britain, thus the control over the British troops was quite isolated. Civil war was of more revolutionary basis (esp after Lincoln’s state that ALL the slaves should be free). Similarities: as the result of both wars two most important documents in the history of the country were issued: War of Ind – The Constitution (1789), Civil War – The Emancipation Proclamation (1862-during the war). After both wars there were long periods of the development of the country: after the 1st one it was ter. expansion first of all, while after the Civil war it was primarily economic, social and political development (attitude towards the Blacks, industries, etc)
9. The First Half of the 20th Century.
After the Civil War the US was a huge country, by 1890 it became the leading world power. During the presidency of Theodor Roosevelt (1901-09) there were demands for social reforms=>education was modernized and the labour movement grew stronger. The Panama Canal (1904-1914) increase US influence in central America. The position’s more strengthened after the WW1 (entered it in 1917, lost 113000 people) => US was the richest creditor country in the world. Woodrow Wilson was Pres.(1913-21), played an active part in setting the League of Nations. But later on - Isolationist Foreign Policy. Immigration into the country was restricted, post-WW1 period – increasing prosperity, increase in crime (organise first of all), prohibition of alc.drinks.BUT in 1929 (Republican Administration) – THE CRASH OF WALL-STREET=> the beginning of world-wide crisis – THE GREAT DEPRESSION. 17 mln unemployed. 1932 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt (democrat) elected Pres, introduced some measures – THE NEW DEAL. It was 1st attempt to introduce public sector (earlier economic life was controlled by private business). Industrial enterprises got subsidies, banks got government support, farmers got subsidies so as to be able to restrict production. Their extra-production was purchased by the Gov. Public works provided work for the unemployment (17 mln -> 8 mln). Moreover the New Deal included social and labour legislation (unemployment relief – ïîñîáèå ïî áåçðàáîòèöå, old age & disability pensions, collective bargaining (trade unions). Roosevelt became very popular, served 3 successive terms, elected for the 4th but died in april, 1945. The US entered the WW2 in December, 1941 after the Japanese air attack on Pearl Harbour. The Supreme Commander – Dwight David Eisenhower (IKE). At that time The US played a leading part in the war in the Far East, allied invasions of North Africa, Sicily, Italy & Normandy. In 1945 Henry Truman was responsible for Atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Cold War started. 1949 the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) was founded.
10. The Great Depression and the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1929 (Republican Administration) – THE CRASH OF WALL-STREET=> the beginning of world-wide crisis – THE GREAT DEPRESSION. 17 mln unemployed. 1932 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt (democrat) elected Pres, introduced some measures – THE NEW DEAL. It was 1st attempt to introduce public sector (earlier economic life was controlled by private business). Industrial enterprises got subsidies, banks got government support, farmers got subsidies so as to be able to restrict production. Their extra-production was purchased by the Gov. Public works provided work for the unemployment (17 mln -> 8 mln). Many other measures were introduced by Roosevelt and his advisors, called The Brain Trust, all of them had the aim of stimulating business and providing employment. Moreover the New Deal included social and labour legislation (unemployment relief – ïîñîáèå ïî áåçðàáîòèöå, old age & disability pensions, collective bargaining (trade unions). Roosevelt became very popular, was the only amer.pres. who served 3 successive terms and was elected for the 4th but died in April, 1945 (served from 1932). But he also had bitter enemies, esp.in big business circles. In attacking his policies they often called him a socialist which was not true, he was a liberal and played a progressive role in the American history. Under his administration diplomatica relations with the Soviet Union were established (1933).