Examine the institution of the AM Presidency, its power and major functions. Comment on the President’s role in forming home and foreign policy
The President of the US is head of the executive power or the Chief Executive and his office is one of the most powerful in the world. Under the Constitution he must ”take care, that the laws be faithfully executed”. In addition he has important legislative and judicial powers. The official residence and office of the President is in the White House.
Constitutional qualifications for the Presidency are – at least 35 years old, a resident of the country for at least 14 years and national born citizen.
The President, together with the Vice president, is elected to a 4years term. The 22nd Amendment to the Constitution, in 1951, limited the Presidency to no more than 2terms.
The president is succeeded by the Vice President (47th Joe Biden, 2009). The Constitution doesn’t delegate any specific executive powers to the Vice President.
As head of the government (the executive branch), the president must carry out the government programmes. He has an important legislative role. He recommends laws to Congress and requests money for federal government operations. He can veto any bill passed by Congress. He is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the US. He has the authority to appoint the heads of all executive departments and agencies. Each appointment must be approved by the Senate. Under the Constitution the President is responsible for foreign relations with other nations.
Foreign policy (the latter half of 20-21st cent)
1) US acting as a global.-policeman
2)By the time of the collapse of the USSR, the US had military and economic interests in every region of the globe (interventions in Panama, Iraq)
3) In 2007 03 decided to deploy antiballistic systems in the Chech Republic and-Poland. In 2008 Obama was elected as President of the USA. His main aims in foreign policy are: he'd draw down forces in Iraq; open talks with adversaries such as Iran, Syria and Cuba; end torture and close Guantánamo; renounce unilateralism and preventive wars; rebuild ties with allies; and re-engage with the Kyoto climate change initiative. He's also pledged to halt the development of and to seek a "world without nuclear weapons." Obama would start to put the threat of terrorism in its proper perspective, elevating the importance of other threats to security, from poverty to pandemic disease to global warming. Obama promises to increase Pentagon spending, boost the size of the Army and Marines, bolster the Special Forces, expand intelligence agencies and maintain the hundreds of US military bases that dot the globe
Describe the process of presidential elections, their indirect character. What is meant be an “electoral college”? Comment on the results of the presidential elections of the year 2008. Obama – the new US President.
The method of electing a president is peculiar to the US. The people from each state do not vote directly for the President. They elect as many electors as this state has Senators and Representatives in the Congress. These electors are selected exclusively by the corresponding party machines. The candidate with the highest number of votes in each state wins all the electoral votes of the state.
The electors of all 50 states and the District of Columbia (3electors) – a total of 538 persons – compose the Electoral College. The electors gather in the state capitals shortly after the election and cast their votes for the candidate with the largest number of popular votes in their respective states. To be elected President, a candidate must receive 270 votes.
The Constitution provides, that if no candidate has a majority, the decision should be made by the H of R, with all members from a state voting as a unit. In this case, each state and the District of Columbia would be given one vote only.
Candidates for the Presidency are chosen by political parties several months before the presidential election, which is held every 4years (leap year) on the 1st Tuesday after the 1st Monday in November.
The Presidential term of 4years begins on January 20. He starts his official duties with an inauguration ceremony, traditionally held on the steps of the Capitol, where Congress works.
Characterize the main politician parties in the USA (the R and D – history, politician platform today and role today). The result of the elections of November 2008 concerning the presidency and the control of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
Today the United States has two major political parties. One is the Democratic Party, whose origins go back to the nation's third president, Thomas Jefferson and which formed before 1800 The other is the republican Party, which was formed in the 1850s, by people in the states of the North and West, such as Abraham Lincoln, who wanted the government to prevent the expansion of slavery into new states then being admitted to the union. Party membership in any American party is rarely formal. Members of the Democratic and Republican parties are not registered, they do not have cards and do not pay membership dues. There are no official formalities for admission. Any voter during elections may become a Republican or a Democrat by a simple declaration, that he is a member of this or that party. He takes no responsibilities when he makes that declaration. Associating with a party is strictly and exclusively a. matter of individual self-expression.
One explanation for the long life of the Republican and Democratic parties is that they are not strong ideological organizations, but loose alliances of state and local parties that unite every four years for the presidential election. Most Americans today consider the Democratic Party the more liberal party. As they understand it the Democrats believe that the federal government and the state governments should be active in providing social and economic programs for those who need them, During the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt the government under the Democratic Party established the Social
Security program, which ensures that those who are retired or disabled receive monthly payments from the government.
Republicans are not vividly opposed-to -such programs. However, they believe that many social programs are too costly to the taxpayers and that when taxes are raised to pay for such programs, everyone is hurt. They place more emphasis on private enterprise and often accuse the Democrats of making the government too expensive. For that reason, Americans tend to think of the Republican Party as more conservative.