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Linux has its roots in a student project. In 1992, an undergraduate called Linus Torvalds was studying computer science in Helsinki, Finland. Like most computer science courses, a big component of it was taught on (and about) Unix. Unix was the wonder operating system of the 1970s and 1980s: both a textbook example of the principles of operating system design, and sufficiently robust to be the standard OS in engineering and scientific computing. But Unix was a commercial product and cost more than a student could pay.

Annoyed by the shortcomings of Minix (a compact Unix clone written as a teaching aid by Professor Andy Tannenbaum) Linus set out to write his own 'kernel' - the core of an operating system that handles memory allocation, talks to hardware devices, and makes sure everything keeps running. He used the GNU programming tools developed by Richard Stallman's Free Software Foundation, an organisation of volunteers dedicated to fulfilling Stallman's ideal of making good software that anyone could use without paying. When he'd written a basic kernel, he released the source code to the Linux kernel on the Internet.

Source code is important. It's the original from which compiled programs are generated. If you don't have the source code to a program, you can't modify it to fix bugs or add new features. Most software companies won't sell you their source code, or will only do so for an eyewatering price, because they believe that if they make it available it will destroy their revenue stream.

What happened next was astounding, from the conventional, commercial software industry point of view - and utterly predictable to anyone who knew about the Free Software Foundation. Programmers (mostly academics and students) began using Linux. They found that it didn't do things they wanted it to do so they fixed it. And where they improved it, they sent the improvements to Linus, who rolled them into the kernel. And Linux began to grow.

There's a term for this model of software development; it's called Open Source (see www.opensource.org/ for more information).

Anyone can have the source code - it's free (in the sense of free speech, not free beer). Anyone can contribute to it. If you use it heavily you may want to extend or develop or fix bugs in it - and it is so easy to give your fixes back to the community that most people do so.

An operating system kernel on its own isn't a lot of use; but Linux was purposefully designed as a near-clone of Unix, and there is a lot of software out there that is free and was designed to compile on Linux. By about 1992, the first 'distributions' appeared.

A distribution is the Linux-user term for a complete operating system kit, complete with the utilities and applications you need to make it do useful things - command interpreters, programming tools, text editors, typesetting tools, and graphical user interfaces based on the X windowing system. X is a standard in academic and scientific computing, but not hitherto common on PCs; it's a complex distributed windowing system on which people implement graphical interfaces like KDE and Gnome.

As more and more people got to know about Linux, some of them began to port the Linux kernel to run on non-standard computers. Because it's free, Linux is now the most widely-ported operating system there is.



Unit 5

Pre-reading activity

Guess the meaning of following words.


suite [swJt]; presentation ["prezqn'teISqn]; option ['LpSqn]; Broser ['brauzq]; simulation ["sImjH'leISn]; version ['vWSn]; automatically ["Ltq'mxtIkqlI]; three-dimensional ["TrJdI'menSqnql]; swap items ["swxp'aItqmz]; suited ['sjHtId]


Read and learn the basic vocabulary terms:


Date: 2015-01-02; view: 989

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