1. He (to run) now. He (to run) for ten minutes without any rest.
2. What they (to do) now? — They (to work) in the reading-room. They (to work) there for already three hours.
3. Where he (to be) now? — He (to be) in the garden. He (to play) volley-ball with his friends. They (to play) since breakfast time.
4. I (to live) in St Petersburg. I (to live) in St Petersburg since 1990.
5. She already (to do) her homework for two hours; but she (not yet to do) half of it.
6. I (to wait) for you since two o'clock.
7. What you (to do)? — I (to read). I (to read) for already two hours. I already (to read) sixty pages.
8. This man (to be) a writer. He (to write) books. He (to write) books since he was a young man. He already (to write) eight books.
9. What you (to do) here since morning?
10. Today Lina (to help) her mother since morning. They already (to wash) the floor and (to dust) the furniture. Now they (to cook) dinner together.
11. This is the factory where my father (to work). He (to work) here for fifteen years.
12. You (to find) your note-book? — No! I still (to look) for it. I already (to look) for it for two hours, but (not yet to find) it.
13. You (to play) with a ball for already three hours. Go home and do your homework.
14. Wake up! You (to sleep) for ten hours already.
15. I (to wait) for a letter from my cousin for a month already, but (not yet to receive) it.
16. It is difficult for me to speak about this opera as I (not to hear) it.
17. I just (to receive) a letter from my granny, but I (not yet to receive) any letters from my parents.
18. The weather (to be) fine today. The sun (to shine) ever since we got up.
19. Every day I (to wind) up my watch at 10 o'clock in the evening.
20. Come along, Henry, what you (to do) now? I (to wait) for you a long time.
21. Where your gloves (to be)? — I (to put) them into my pocket.
22. Don't come in. He (take) an exam. He (take) his exam for half an hour already.
23. I (pass) my exam in history today.
24. Look! Only two stars (shine) in the dark blue sky.
25. When your lessons (to begin) on Monday? — They (to begin) at nine o'clock.
26. I (try) to speak with him for a long time, but at last I (understand) it’s useless.
Table A Table B
3. Expert system
5. Information superhighway
a) Software that enables computers to ‘think’ like experts
b) Use computers to stay in touch with the office while working at home
c) Internet system designed to provide free, interactive access to vast resources for people all over the world
d) Multimedia materials with a combination of educational and entertainment content
e) A combination of text with sound, video, animation, and graphics.
Task 6.Mark the following as True or False.
1. A personal computer can process different forms of data including text, graphics, audio, animation and video. 2. Videoconferencing is a form of communication over a network that uses video cameras. 3. Anti-virus programs are used to connect a number of computers and peripheral devices together. 4. A hard disk is a piece of equipment used for putting data into a computer. 5. A chip which is the common name for a microchip is an electronic integrated circuit in a small package. 6. Desktop computers are referred to the powerful type of computers, operated by a team of professionals.
Task 7. Fill in the blanks with the words from the box.
ability to combine; handles; in hardware and software; operating systems; increased precision; parallel processing; to count; data and information; to store this program
1. The word ‘computer’ comes from a Latin word which means … . 2. The feature which makes the computer more than just a calculator is its … thousands of such small operations into a program and … . 3. All the data which a computer … are in the form of numbers. 4. The term “computer generations” helps to single out the major technological developments … . 5. The production of … - a type of systems software – and applications software packages increased rapidly. 6. We must be selective about the type of … we process. 7. Data processing is getting faster and faster, mathematical calculations continue to be performed with … . 8. Traditional computers act on only one problem at a time; … means that many processors will work on the problem at the same time.
Task 8. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the use of Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect Tenses in the Active Voice.
1. The ability of tiny computing devices to control complex operations has transformed the way many tasks are performed, ranging from scientific research to producing consumer products. 2. These smart machines are designed to take over some of the basic tasks previously performed by people, by so doing, they make life a little easier and a little more pleasant. 3. Now that computers are proliferating in many areas and networks are available for people to access data and communicate with others, personal computers are becoming interpersonal PCs. 4. Distance learning and video conferencing are concepts made possible with the use of an electronic classroom or boardroom accessible to people in remote locations. 5. Not only is computing equipment getting smaller, it is getting more sophisticated. 6. I searched the Web for sites on digital cameras yesterday. 7. The programmer has added some other features to his computer. 8. We have indicated that the computer cannot replace the human teacher, nor it is desirable that it should. 9. In certain areas of both hardware and software we have facilities which the pioneers could only dream of. 10. Computers have decreased in price dramatically over the last ten years, but at the same time they have become much more powerful.
Task 9. Give the verbs in brackets in the Passive voice and translate the sentences.
1. The information superhighway (to design) to significantly expand this interactive connectivity so that people all over the world will have free access to all these resources. 2. Until the late 1970s, the computer (to view) as a massive machine that was useful to big business and big government but not to the general public. 3. Much of the computer activity (to centre) in the Silicon Valley in northern California, where the first computer-related company (to locate) in 1955. 4. The word’ software’ (to create) by analogy to hardware. 5. All these operations, together with input and output, (to perform) with great speed and accuracy. 6. The problem of being overloaded with information (to discuss) more and more in business and computer publications. 7. Modern personal computers always (to look at) with interest. 8. The experiments on the new microcomputer (to carry out) during the whole month. 9. Information (to transmit) between people in different continents or inside the human brain in the form of signals. 10. The first IBM PC (to develop) using existing available electrical components.
Task 10. Work in pairs. Find out this information from your partner. Make sure you use the correct tense in your questions. For example:
download music from the Internet [what site]
A Have you ever downloaded music from the Internet?
B What site did you use?
1. send a video email attachment [who to, when]
2. fit an expansion card [which type]
3. replace a hard disk [what model]
4. fix a printer fault [what kind]
5. make your own website [how]
6. have a virus [which virus]
7. watch TV on the Internet [which station]
8. write a program [which language]
Task 11.Translate the following sentences into English.
1.Общеизвестно, что пользователи бывают начинающие и продвинутые. 2. Отдельной категорией выступают люди, профессию которых вкратце можно назвать словом "компьютерщик" (эти люди умеют абсолютно все, правда, они сами иногда об этом не знают). 3. Первая категория пользователей является самой распространенной. 4. Работа компьютера для них представляется весьма загадочным явлением, и занимаются они в основном набором и распечаткой текстов, проводят время за играми и смотрят видеофильмы. 5. Вторую категорию, как правило, уже не удовлетворяет лишь одна работа за компьютером. 6. Сильное стремление к достижению новых высот заставляет неокрепшие умы испытывать различные программные новинки, использовать полезные советы по оптимизации работы компьютера и многое другое, что начинающему пользователю совсем неизвестно. 7. Третья категория пользователей самая малочисленная. 8. В нее входят люди, чья профессиональная деятельность вынуждает их заниматься сборкой, настройкой и ремонтом компьютеров.
Task 12. Topics for discussion.
1. Describe the way how a computer processes information.
2. Speak on the range of sizes and types of computers.
3. The multi-purposeness of computers.
4. The compatibility of computer systems.
5. Dwell on the services provided by computers and their advantages (disadvantages).
Task 13. Read Text B and find the answers to the following questions.
1. How many generations of computers do you know? 2. What were the main characteristics of the first generation of computers? How did they differ from the second and third generations? 3. What helped to miniaturize the computer circuits? 4. How can computers change our lives for better (for worse)?
Text B. THE EVOLUTION OF COMPUTERS
Computers have evolved through several generations. Each new generation is based on technological innovations and new methods of processing data. The first generation (1951-1958) began with the development of the earliest large mainframe computers. These room-sized computers, such as the UNIVAC 1 (designed by the Eckert, Mauchley, and John von Neumann team), were based on electromechanical devices and vacuum-tube technology and generally used punched tape or punched cards as the primary input and output media.
Computers of the first generation were used initially for computational purposes, mainly by governmental agencies such as the U.S. census bureau, but they soon found a broader use in basic business transactions related to customer billing, internal accounting, inventory tracking, and payroll calculations. Since computers could be used to replace many of the employees who were maintaining these records, it was easier to justify their cost. BY the late 1950s, many of America's larger companies were considering the purchase of a computer.
Computers based on the transistor, which was invented in the late 1950s, mark the beginning of the second generation of computers (1959-1964). Transistors brought about the development of smaller, faster, and more efficient computers. And transistors were not the only improvements of this period. Magnetic core memories began to appear and computers became more modular in design. In addition, programming languages, the sets of special instructional statements that were used to program these computers, became easier to use and this brought more people into contact with computers. As a result, a new occupation, computer programmers, came into being and they began to design new computer programs for use in business and education, known as applications.
The third generation of computers (1965-1970) used integrated circuits which opened the door for the creation of even smaller and faster computers. These smaller computers were known as minicomputers and were the first to incorporate operating systems which automated many of the computer's operational tasks, tasks that had been formerly handled by humans. The International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation introduced the new “families” of computers, the IBM 360 and 370. Business-oriented programs were written for these computers that could be used on any of the computers in the family.
The fourth generation of computers is characterized by large-scale integration of computer circuitry and small microprocessors. Microcomputers (also called personal computers or PCs) were based on these microprocessors and they put computing power into the hands of individual users. The term large-scale integration (LSI) was used during this period to describe the constant miniaturization of computer circuits. Today the process of constant miniaturization of computer circuits is continuing and is termed Very Large-Scale Integration (VLSI). New high-level programming languages developed and they were designed to be easier to use and more closely related to specific computer tasks.
The fifth computer generation is marked by the evolution of computers that use newer, faster technologies to carry out a broader variety of tasks. Some of the tasks that computers will do in the next generation of computing can be defined as artificial intelligence (AI). Such computers would make decisions based on available evidence rather than on hard-and-fast rules. If computers could be taught the rules that are used in decision making, they might be able to replace the human experts who are currently charged with those decisions. Some versions of these types of expert systems are already in use and new ones are now under development.
Task 14. Describe (in writing) how you use computers in your study and in your free time. Give examples of the impact they have on your lives.