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Takeovers and mergers

'Magnetic's board rejected TT's bid as "derisory, unsolicited, unwelcome and totally inadequate"" This is familiar refrain from the board of company that is the target of hosti1e bid, one that it does not want, for example because it thinks that the bidder is undervaluing its shares: offering less for the shares than the target thinks they worth in terms of its future profitability. bid that target company welcomes, n the other hand, may be described as friendly.

Bidders often already have minority stake r interest in the target company: they already own some shares. The bid is to gain majority stake so that they own shares than any other shareholder and enough shares to be able to decide how it is run.

company that often takes over r acquires others is said to be acquisitive. The companies it buys acquisitions. It may be referred to, especially by journalists, as predator, and the companies it buys, r would like to buy, as its prey.

When company buys others over period of time, group, conglomerate or mbine forms, containing parent m with number of subsidiaries and perhaps with many different types of business activity. group like this is diversified. Related companies in group n have synergy, sharing production and other costs, and benefiting from cross-marketing of each other's products. Synergy is sometimes expressed as the idea that two plus two equals five, the notion that companies offer more shareholder value together than they would separately.

But the current trend is for groups to sell off, spin off r dispose of their non-core assets and activities, in process of divestment and restructuring, allowing them to focus n their core activities, the ones they r best at doing and make the most profit from. Compare an old-style conglomerate like GEC in the UK, with wide variety of sometimes unrelated activities, and group like Pearson, which has decided to concentrate n media, in broadcasting, publishing and now Internet ventures.

Companies may work together in particular area by forming n llin r joint venture, perhaps forming new company in which they both have stake. Two companies working together like this may later decide to go for merger, combining as equals. But as the main Course Book unit points out, mergers (like takeovers) r fraught with difficulty and for variety of reasons often fail, even where the merger involves two companies in the same country. n of the companies will always behave as the dominant partner.

Take the scenario where n company's base is used as the headquarters for the merged company.

The other company's office closes, and many managers in both companies lose their jobs. Those remaining feel beleaguered and under threat of losing theirs later. They may dislike the way the managers from the other company work. In cross-border mergers, these difficulties compounded by cross-cultural misunderstandings and tensions. Problems such as these explain why merged companies so often fail to live up to the promise of the day of the press conference when the two CEOs vaunted the merger's merits.



Read on

John Child, David Faulkner: Strategies of Co-operation: Maagig Alliaces, Networks ad Joit Vetures, OUP, 1998

Timothy Galpin, Mark Herndon: The Coplete Guide to Mergers ad Acquisitions, Jossey Bass Wiley, 1999

Hazel Johnson: Mergers ad Acquisitions, Financial imes Prentice Hall, 1999

J. Fred Weston: Mergers ad Acquisitions, Grw-ill, 2000

 


Date: 2015-01-02; view: 1642


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