Decide whether the following statements are true or false.
1. Everything is known about metals.
2. Metals are seldom used in high-rise building and bridge construction due to their strength and resilience.
3. Automobiles are built from metals such as steel, cast iron, aluminium, zinc and copper.
4. The process of manufacturing an automobile starts with stamping, forging, casting and machining of steel, aluminium, zinc, and plastics.
5. The overall weight of automobiles has increased.
6. The steel and cast iron content in some American vehicles has fallen.
7. The metal content of modern vehicles still remains at around 60 percent of the total weight.
8. The bumper in modern vehicles is shiny because it is covered in silver.
9. The bumper is covered with layers of three metals such as chromium, nickel and copper.
10. There are no possibilities for further reductions in metal weight content of passenger vehicles.
Answer the following questions.
1. What does high structural strength per unit mass make metals useful for?
2. Where are metals and metal alloys used?
3. How much steel does the body of the typical European car consist of?
4. What metal is used in the cylinder block and gearbox?
5. In what parts of cars is aluminium used?
6. What is copper in cars necessary for?
7. What is the first step in manufacturing an automobile?
8. How has the overall weight of automobiles changed as the demand for performance and reliability increased?
9. What is the metal content in modern vehicles?
10. What is chromium used in bumpers for?
11. How many metals cover the modern bumper?
12. Why is it necessary to reduce metal weight content of passenger vehicles?
Complete the grid. Look at these four clues and fill in the answers in the spaces provided below. You will find that you make a term-word in the vertical box. (You may hope for the key.)
1. Make or become better (7)
2. Harm or injury that causes loss of value (6)
3. Polish, shape or sharpen (5)
4. Examine (4)
Match the words with the synonyms.
5) to fall
e) to decrease
2) a great deal
f) a lot
8) to satisfy
h) to meet
Match the words with the antonyms.
e) to fall
2) to increase
6) to rise
d) to decrease
Fill in the correct prepositions.
1. Metal fatigue is weakness ___ metal that is frequently put ___ pressure that makes it likely to break.
2. This tool is used ___ shaping wood.
3. A car flashed past them ___ a speed ___ 100 km ___ hour.
4. I insist ___ paying ___ the damage.
5. Metals are indispensable ___ modern technology and industry.
6. There’s an increased demand ___ performance and reliability ___ cars.
7. The course offers a range ___ exciting possibilities ___ developing your skills.
Take a special quiz. Find the words which illustrate the main points of unit VI. First look at the five to five clues and fill in the answers in the spaces provided below. You will find the expected answers in the vertical boxes.
1. It is used in pistons (9)
2. It is used for batteries (4)
3. It is used for making vehicle body (5)
4. It consists of two words and only first part of it you need. It is used in gearbox (4)
5. It is situated under chromium (5)
1. Strong rope of fibre or wire used on ships, cars, etc (5)
2. Chamber (in an engine) in which gas works a piston (8)
3. Large solid piece of stone, wood, etc. (5)
4. Round plate or short cylinder fitting inside another cylinder in which it moves, used in engines (6)
5. Main part of a structure (4)
A. An Automobile Story.
A tourist who was going by car through the country saw a man followed by a dog. As the car drew near them the dog suddenly began to cross the road. The poor animal was hit by the car and killed. The automobile stopped his car and approached the man.
“I am very sorry that this has happened,” he said. “Will ten dollars be enough?”
“Oh, yes,” said the man, “ten dollars will be quite enough!”
The man put the money in his pocket and as the car disappeared in the distance, he looked down at the dead animal and thought: “I wonder whose dog it was.”
B. Two Drivers.
Two motorcars met in a very narrow lane in London. Neither of the drivers wanted to reverse and clear the road.
The driver of the first car took out a newspaper and began reading.
In an hour the second driver asked politely:
“When you finish reading, won’t you give the newspaper to me?”
C. “I say, porter, where is this train going to?”
“This train goes to Liverpool in ten minutes, Madam.”
“Good gracious! Last time I went to Liverpool ittookfour hours.”
19. Grammar Revision. Degrees of Comparison. Study and compare the emblems. Use the words from the table below to describe the cars. You can find some historical information in the Supplementary File at the back of the book. (Mind that “5” means better than “0”). Make as many comparisons as possible.
easy to drive
20. Test Yourself V (Psychological Aspects). Read the fragment of the novel “Very Far Away from Anywhere Else” by an American writer Ursula K. Le Guin. Imagine you are the boy’s father or mother. What would they say? Discuss it with your group-mate.
“My father is a CPA, and we don’t have that kind of money for unnecessary things. For that kind of money I could have lived for a year or more at MIT, if I got a tuition scholarship. That’s what came into my head right away, before he’d even opened the shiny little door. He could have put the money into savings. Of course, I could sell the car and not take too bad a loss on it if I did soon. That came into my head too, and that was when he put the keys in my hand and said, “She’s all yours, son!” and his face twisted up that way. And I smiled. I guess.
I don’t know if I fooled him. If so, it was probably the first time I ever succeeded in fooling anybody; but I think so, because he wanted so badly to be fooled, to believe that I was struck dumb with joy and gratitude. That sounds as if I was scornful of him. I don’t mean it that way.
We took the car out for a ride right away, of course. I drove up into the park, and he drove it back – he was itching to get hands on the wheel – and all that was fine. The trouble came when he found out on Monday that I hadn’t driven my new car to school. Why not?
I couldn’t tell him why not. I only half understood it myself. If I drove the thing to school and parked it in the school lot, I’d given in. I owned it. It owned me. I was the owner of a new car with all the extras. People at school would say, “Hey wow. How about Fastback Griffiths!” Some of them would sneer, but some of them would honestly admire it, and maybe me for being lucky enough to own it. And that’s what I couldn’t take. I didn’t know who I was, but I knew one thing: I wasn’t the seat-fixture of an automobile. What I was the type who walks to school (it’s 2.7 miles by the shortest route) because walking is the kind of exercise I like, and I really like the streets of he city. The sidewalks, the buildings, the people you pass. Not the brake lights on the back of the car in front of yours.
Well, anyhow, that was where I drew the line, I’d already tried very ingeniously to hide the line, by driving errands for Mother on Saturday, and volunteering to take both my parents for a drive in the country on Sunday in “my new car.” But Monday evening he found the line. Didn’t you take the car to school? Why not?”