1. to conduct transactions
2. in the most efficient manner
3. to act in one’s own best interests
4. to stay out of the way
5. to make profits
6. the lack of significant
7. to adjust to change over time
8. to stay in business
9. incredible variety
10. to switch to
11. on the other hand
12. market economy
а. отримувати прибуток
б. проводити дiловi операцiї
в. з іншого боку; у свою чергу
г. неймовiрна рiзноманiтнiсть
д. не втручатися
е. працювати для власної вигоди
є. залишатися в бiзнесi
з. найбiльш ефективним способом
и. ринкова економіка
і. змiнюватися з часом
ї. брак значного втручання уряду
Match the synonyms:
a buyer, to desire, to make profits, to take care (of), to supply, to conduct transactions, interest, considerable, a purchaser, to allow, benefit, to get profits, variety, to manufacture, to arrange a deal, to provide (with), significant, to look after, tendency, lack, intervention, to permit, diversity, to produce, interference, trend, to wish, absence.
III.Match the antonyms:
to sell, advantage, high prices, to spend money, to decline, flexible, to go out of business, to save money, disadvantage, low prices, worst, to buy, credible, variety, best, uniformity, inflexible, to stay out of the way, incredible, available, to meddle with other people’s business, unavailable, to stay in business, to level off.
IV.Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:
1. In a market economy, the questions ... What, How and ... Whom to produce are made ... individuals and firms acting ... their own best interests. 2. A market economy is flexible and can adjust to change ... time. 3. Since consumers like products ... low prices and high quality, producers ... a market economy will try to supply such products. 4. Those who make the best products ... the lowest prices will stay ... business. 5. The second major advantage ... the market economy is the freedom that exists ... everyone involved. 6. Except ... national defence, the government tries to stay ... the way. 7. As long as there is competition ... producers, the market economy generally takes care ... itself. 8. The final advantage ... the market economy is the incredible variety ... goods and services available ... consumers.
V.Complete the following sentences:
1. In a market economy the questions of What, How and for Whom to produce are made by ... . 2. In economic term a market is ... . 3. Since consumers like products with low prices and high quality, ... . 4. Those who make the best products for the lowest prices ... . 5. Other producers will either go out of business or ... . 6. A market economy has ... . 7. The first advantage of the market economy is ... . 8. The second major advantage of the market economy is ... . 9. Consumers are free to spend their money or ... . 10. The third advantage of the market economy is ... . 11. As long as there is competition among producers, ... . 12. The final advantage of the market economy is ... .
VI. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:
Column A Column B
1. economic system
a. An economic system that allocates scarce resources according to custom.
2. traditional economy
b. An economic system in which major decisions concerning the allocation of resources are made by agencies of the government.
3. command economy
c. The approach a country uses to deal with
scarcity and achieve its economic goals.
d. The production, distribution, and sale of goods and services for a profit.
e. The rivalry among buyers and sellers in the purchase and sale of resources and products.
f. A person who buys and uses goods or services.
g. The difference between revenues and
operation costs incurred by a business.
h. Place where buyers and sellers come
together to conduct transactions.
VII.Define which of the following items best completes
1. A market exists
a. where consumers express their needs and wants.
b. when products are advertised.
c. where merchants build shops.
d. where buyers and sellers exchange goods and services.
2. Individuals and businesses have the greatest say about what is produced in
a. market economies.
b. traditional economies.
c. command economies.
d. all economic systems.
3. The special role of the profit motive in a market economy is that, it
a. drives sellers to produce what buyers want.
b. results in high prices.
c. discourages people from taking risks.
d. keeps people from going into business.
4. In another country, privately owned business firms can produce goods or services in any lawful manner that they choose.
This country has
a. a market economy.
b. a traditional economy.
c. a command economy.
d. a mixed economy.
VIII. Answer the following questions:
1. Who asks the questions of What, How and for Whom to produce in a market economy? 2. What is a market in economic term? 3. Who will stay in business in a market economy? 4. What advantages does market economy have? Explain it in details. 5. What does the final advantage of the market economy consist in?
IX. Translate into English:
1. Ринкова економiка має кiлька головних переваг, яких нема в традицiйнiй та команднiй економiках. 2. Коли цiни на газ у Сполучених Штатах вирiвнялися в 1985 р. i потiм упали в 1986 р., то ця тенденцiя повiльно почала змiнюватися в протилежному напрямку. 3. Одна з головних переваг ринкової економiки полягає у свободi, яка iснує для кожного пiдприємця. 4. Оскільки споживачам подобаються товари за низькими цiнами i високої якостi, виробники за ринкової економiки намагатимуться постачати саме такi товари. 5. Уряд намагається не втручатися в жодні галузi, крім нацiональної оборони. 6. У ринковiй економiцi майже будь-який товар може бути i буде виготовлений, поки на нього є покупець.