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Topics for Discussion

1. Discuss the roles that the following played in the defeat of the Aztecs by the Spaniards:

a. superior weaponry

b. fear of the supernatural

ń. Montezuma s indecisive leadership

2. List several characteristics or traits of the Spanish conquistadors. Use as many descriptive adjectives as possible: for example, many conquistadors were greedy men.


3. In the sixteenth century, Spain brought colonial rule to Mexico. Say what you know about foreign influences in your country in the past and today.


10.2 For more practice use the video “Ancient Mysteries — Nazca Lines”. Check your understanding answering the following questions.


  • Who were the first eyewitnesses of Nazca Lines?
  • When did it happen?
  • What lines are more remarkable?
  • What was suggested by a Swiss writer Erich von Däniken?
  • When did scientific studies begin? Who started them? What idea did she suggest?
  • When did an archaeologist Jacquetta Hawkes came to Nazca? What did she find out?


Unit 11. Ň. Ĺ. Lawrence: Lawrence of Arabia


11.1 Lecture. Ň. Ĺ. Lawrence: Lawrence of Arabia


A. Pre–listening Activities


Preview of Content

The lecture you are going to hear is narrative in form. It is the story of Ň. Ĺ. Lawrence's life told against the background of the start and finish of World War I. The speaker starts off with a word or two about Lawrence's background–about where and when he was born; where he went to school; and what courses of study he pursued in college. He then leaves off talking about Lawrence and begins to talk briefly about the political situation in the Middle East at the outbreak of World War I. He here explains why Lawrence was sent to help with the Arab revolt (to help incite Arab rebellion against the Turkish Empire). He goes on to draw a picture of Lawrence and his Arab comrades fighting a guerilla war to defeat the Turkish forces. Here the lecturer jumps to the end of the war and discusses Lawrence's inability to promote Arab independ­ence from France and Great Britain. He describes Lawrence as a man who feels that he has betrayed his former comrades. The last section of the lecture covers the period in Lawrence's life from his leaving the Colonial Office in 1922 until his death in mid–1930. He says that the war hero withdrew from the public and avoided all fame and glory he might have received because of his excellent fighting record. The lecturer draws his narrative to an end with some words about the controversy that surrounds this Englishman. Some people, he says, consider Lawrence a saint. Others believe he was a devil. The lecturer points out that, above all, he was a colorful, complex personality.


Date: 2015-12-18; view: 294

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