The 2000 presidential election brought George W. Bush to power. Internationally, the United States experienced some friction with its allies, who didn't like the Bush administration's desire to abandon both the Kyoto Protocol (designed to fight global warming) and the Antiballistic Missile Treaty (in order to proceed with developing a ballistic missile defense system).
But the politics and concerns of the first months of 2001 became secondary on Sept. 11, when terrorists hijacked four planes, crashing two into the World Trade centre, which was destroyed, and one into the Pentagon; the fourth crashed near Shanksville, Pennsylvania. Some 3,000 persons were killed or missing as a result of the attacks. The U.S. government sought to build an international coalition against Al Qaeda group and the Taliban and, more broadly, against terrorism, working to influence other nations to cut off sources of financial support for terrorism.
In October air strikes and then ground raids were launched against Afganistan by the United States with British aid. By December the Taliban government had been ousted and its Al Qaeda's fighters largely had been routed. A force of U.S. troops was based in Afganistan to search for Bin Laden, the main leader of terrorists.
President Bush ordered the deployment of a ballistic missile defense system to be effective in 2004; the system would be designed to prevent so-called rogue missile attacks. In advance of this movement the United States had withdrawn from the Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty with Russia.
In 2003 Bush continued to press for Iraqi disarmament. In February, however, the nation's attention was pulled away from the growing tension over Iraq by the breakup of the space shuttle Columbia as it returned to earth. Seven astronauts were killed in this second shuttle mishap.
U.S. weapon inspectors reported in Jan., 2004, that they had failed to find any evidence that Iraq had possessed biological or chemical weapons stockpiles prior to the U.S. invasion.
In July the U.S. commission investigating the terror attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, criticized U.S. intelligence agencies for failings that contributed to the success of the attacks, and called for reorganization of those agencies.
Check your comprehension.
1. What President was elected for the beginning of the 21st century in America?
2. What is the Kyoto Protocol?
3. Whatterrible accident took place on September 11, 2001?
4. Whatactions did the U.S. government take in answer?
5. What defence system did President Bush order to deploy?
6. What didG. Bush demand from the Iraq Government?
7. What happened to the space shuttle Columbia?
8. Did the U.S. inspectorsmanage to find any weapons stockpiles on the territory of Iraq?
TYPES OF PUNISHMENT
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions:
1. What types of punishment do you know?
2. Which of them can be found in Ukraine?
3. What punishment do you consider to be the least / most severe?
Exercise 2. Match the following English words and expressions with their Ukrainian equivalents:
2. corporal punishment
3. confinement in jail
5. as well as
Exercise 3. Match the words and their transcription, read and translate the words:
Exercise 4. Read the text to understand what information on crime investigation is of primary importance or new for you.
Types of Punishment
Criminal Punishment is a penalty imposed by the government on individuals who violate criminal law. People who commit crimes may be punished in a variety of ways. Offenders may be subject to fines or other monetary assessments, the infliction of physical pain (corporal punishment), or confinement in jail or prison for a period of time (incarceration). In general, societies punish individuals to achieve revenge against wrongdoers and to prevent further crime – both by the person punished and by others contemplating criminal behaviour. Some modern forms of criminal punishment reflect a philosophy of correction, rather than (or in addition to) one of penalty. Correctional programs attempt to teach offenders how to substitute lawful types of behaviour for unlawful actions.
Throughout history and in many different parts of the world, societies have devised a wide assortment of punishment methods. In ancient times, societies widely accepted the law of equal retaliation (known as lex talionis), a form of corporal punishment that demanded "an eye for an eye." If one person's criminal actions injured another person, authorities would similarly maim the criminal. Certain countries throughout the world still practice corporal punishment. For instance, in some Islamic nations officials exact revenge-based corporal punishments against criminals such as amputation of a thief's hand. Monetary compensation is another historic punishment method. In England during the early Middle Ages payments of "blood money" were required as compensation for death, personal injury, and theft.
Although some societies still use ancient forms of harsh physical punishment, punishments have also evolved along with civilization and become less cruel. Contemporary criminal punishment also seeks to correct unlawful behaviour, rather than simply punish wrongdoers.
Certain punishments require offenders to provide compensation for the damage caused by their crimes. There are three chief types of compensation: fines, restitution, and community service.
A fine is a monetary penalty imposed on an offender and paid to the court. However, fines have not been widely used as criminal punishment because most criminals do not have the money to pay them. Moreover, fining criminals may actually encourage them to commit more crimes in order to pay the fines.
The term restitution refers to the practice of requiring offenders to financially compensate crime victims for the damage the offenders caused. This damage may include psychological, physical, or financial harm to the victim. In most cases, crime victims must initiate the process of obtaining restitution from the offender. Judges may impose restitution in conjunction with other forms of punishment, such as probation (supervised release to the community) or incarceration.
Alternatively, restitution may be included as a condition of an offenders parole program. Prisoners who receive parole obtain an early release from incarceration and remain free, provided they meet certain conditions.
Offenders sentenced to community service perform services for the state or community rather than directly compensating the crime victim or victims. Some of the money saved by the government as a result of community service work may be diverted to a fund to compensate crime victims.
The most serious or repeat offenders are incarcerated. Criminals may be incarcerated in jails or in prisons. Jails typically house persons convicted of misdemeanours (less serious crimes), as well as individuals awaiting trial. Prisons are state or federally operated facilities that house individuals convicted of more serious crimes, known as felonies.
The most extreme form of punishment is death. Execution of an offender is known as capital punishment. Like corporal punishment, capital punishment has been abolished in Ukraine.
Exercise 1. Read the statements. Are they true or false?
1. Criminal Punishment is imposed by the individuals who violate criminal law.
2. A fine is a kind of a monetary assessment.
3. Confinement in jail or prison for a period of time is called incarceration.
4. The only reason to punish offenders is to achieve revenge against wrongdoers.
5. At present societies widely accept the law of equal retaliation.
6. No societies use the forms of harsh physical punishment nowadays.
7. Community service is one of the three types of compensation for the damage caused by their crimes.
8. Fines are often used as criminal punishment.
9. Restitution may be included as a condition of an offenders parole program.
10. The most serious or repeat offenders are incarcerated.
11. Criminals may be incarcerated in courts or police office.
12. Both corporal and capital punishments have been abolished in Ukraine.
Exercise 2. Match the parts of the sentences.
A. Corporal punishment
1) supervised release to the community
2) less serious crimes
C. Lex talionis
3) a monetary penalty imposed on an offender and paid to the court
4) the practice of requiring offenders to financially compensate crime victims for the damage the offenders caused
5) the infliction of physical pain 6) performing services for the state or community
7) execution of an offender
8) confinement in jail or prison for a period of time
H. Community service
9) obtaining an early release from incarceration while remaining free, provided an offender meets certain conditions
I. Capital punishment
10) more serious crimes
11) the law of equal retaliation, a form of corporal punishment that demanded "an eye for an eye"
1) supervised release to the community
III. VOCABULARY STUDY
Exercise 1. Match the words with their definitions and with the crimes committed assault.
remain in one's home for a certain period of time
spend the rest of one's life in
a young offender
prison with no chance of going back into society
who is waiting to go to court
driving rights are removed for a certain period of time
leaves marks on driving record / involves paying a fine
hunting out of season
pay money as punishment for
a youth that steals
minor / petty crime
a car for the first time
do volunteer work such as teaching children about crime or cleaning up garbage
life in prison
spend a certain amount of months or years locked away from society
Exercise 2. Complete the text with the words from the box.
The major driving force underlying all punishment is _____ also referred to as retribution. The word retribution derives from a Latin word meaning "to pay back." In retaliation for _____ societies seek to punish individuals who violate the rules. Criminal punishment is also intended as a deterrent to future criminality. Offenders who are _____ may be deterred from future wrongdoing because they fear additional punishment. Others who contemplate _____ may also be deterred from _____ behaviour. Societies also _____ punishments in order to incapacitate dangerous or unlawful individuals by restricting their liberty and to _____ these wrongdoers and correct their behaviour.
Exercise 3. Make up sentences from the words.
1) from society / or incarceration /crime prevention / Isolating criminals / is the most direct method of / through confinement.
2) penalize wrongdoers / seeks to / and transform their behavior, / rather than / correct criminals / merely / Contemporary criminal punishment.
3) harsh physical punishment, / some societies / punishments have also / Although / evolved along with civilization / and become less cruel / still use ancient forms of.
4) contemporary punishments / In most industrialized societies, / are / or / either fines / or both / terms of incarceration.
5) refers to / requiring offenders / to financially compensate / for the damage / the offenders caused / The term restitution / the practice of / crime victims.
6) or /are incarcerated / The most serious / repeat offenders.
7) certain undesirable individuals, / such as / Some societies / with banishment or exile / criminals and political and religious dissidents, / punish.
8) capital punishment / Opponents of / barbaric and degrading / see it as / to the dignity of the individual.
Exercise 4. Give the English equivalents for the following word combinations:
IV. GRAMMAR FOCUS
Exercise 1. Look at the list of the connectors and match them with their synonyms.
as well as
what is more
Exercise 2. Point out sentences with these connectors in the text and explain the use.
Exercise 1. Role-play
Student A is a police officer and student B is a suspect. Make up a dialogue. The replies below will help you.
Questions from law breakers or suspected criminals.
− Why did you pull me over?
− Have I done something wrong?
− Is this illegal?
− What are my rights?
− Can I call a lawyer?
− Where are you taking me?
− Can I make a phone call?
Questions police may ask a suspected criminal.
− Are you carrying any illegal drugs?
− Do you have a weapon?
− Does this belong to you?
− Whose car is this?
− Where were you at eight last night?
Informing someone of laws and police procedures.
− You are under arrest.
− Put your hands on your head.
− I am taking you to the police station.
− Please get in the police car.
− You will have to pay a fine for this.
− I will give you a warning this time.
− I'm going to write you a ticket.
− We'll tow your car to the station.
− Smoking in restaurants is illegal in this country.