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The first written _____ of law were produced by the Sumerians around 2100-2050 BC. Another important early code was the Code Hammurabi, which formed the core of Babylonian _____.

Neither set of laws separated________ codes and civil laws. Law of the Twelve Tables, earliest code of _____ law, was formalized in 451-450 вс from existing oral law by ten magistrates and inscribed on tablets of bronze or wood, which were posted in the principal Roman Forum. The Twelve Tables covered all categories of the law and also included specific _____ for various _____. This code conflated the _____ and criminal aspects, e.g. treating _____ as a tort.

The first signs of the modern distinction between crimes and civil matters emerged during the Norman Invasion of England. The special notion of penalty, at least concerning Europe, arose in Spanish Late Scholasticism, when the theological notion of God's penalty became transfused into canon law first and, finally, to secular criminal law.

The development of the state provided justice emerged in the eighteenth century when European countries began maintaining police services. From this point, criminal law had formalized the mechanisms for _____, which allowed for its development as a recognized entity.

Exercise 5 Give the English equivalents for the following word combinations:

кримінальне право, кримінальний кодекс, злочин, правопорушення, покарання, призначати покарання, загрожуючи покаранням, запобігати злочину, тілесні ушкодження, забороняти, втрата свободи, нагляд, умовне покарання, типові злочини, призвести до шкідливих наслідків, бути схиль­ним до чогось, бути ув'язненим, порушення громадського порядку.

 

IV. GRAMMAR FOCUS

Exercise 1. Point out sentences with Passive Voice in the text and explain their use.

 

Exercise 2. Transform the sentences in Active Voice into the sentences in Passive Voice according to the model:

Model: The government typically enforce the criminal law. The criminal law is typically enforced by the government.

1) Private parties usually enforce the civil law.


Date: 2015-01-02; view: 1063


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Penal law, criminal offense, civil offence, damage, penalty, prohibited, human being, disagreement, to be imprisoned, responsible, criminal code, control, be found guilty. | Criminal punishment may include execution, loss of liberty, government supervision (parole or probation), or fines.
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