Coordinate clauses joined by copulative conjunctions.
Clauses joined by the conjunction and may be separated by a comma (if the connection between the clauses is close) or asemicolon (if the clauses are more independent). Occasionally a dash is used.
... a library was a most likely place for her, and he might see her there. (London)
He wondered what boat it was, and why she did not stop at the wharf— and then he dropped her out of his mind and put his attention upon his business. (Twain)
Coordinate clauses joined by the conjunctions neither, nor are generally separated by a semicolon.
Martin did not laugh; nor did he grit his teeth in anger. (London)
She would not listen, therefore, to her daughter's proposal of being carried home; neither did the apothecary, who arrived about the same time, think it necessary. (Austen)
Occasionally a comma is found.
He could not bring them back, nor could he go back to them. (London)
But you can't get at him, neither can we. (Dickens)
Clauses joined by the conjunctive adverbs moreover, besides, then are usually separated by a semicolon.
He seemed to have no desire to go; besides his clothes were not good enough. (Cronin)
It was the custom of that youth on Saturdays, to roll up his shirt sleeves to his shoulders, and pervade all parts of the house in an apron of coarse green baize; moreover, he was more strongly tempted on Saturdays than on other days. (Dickens)
§ 9. Coordinate clauses joined by disjunctive conjunctionsare usually separated by a comma. A dash may also be used.
The whole world had come alive again, was going as fast as we were, or rather we were going no faster than the rest of the world. (Wells)
Either his going had been again delayed, or he had yet procured no opportunity of seeing Miss Crawford alone, or he was too happy for letter-writing. (Austen)
Occasionally a semicolon or a dash is found before the conjunction or.
But to live in ignorance on such a point was impossible; or, at least, it was impossible not to try for information. (Austen) She was disappointed — or did it only seem to him? (Wells)
§ 10.Coordinate clauses joined by adversative conjunctions.
Clauses joined by the conjunctions but and white are separated by a comma or a semicolon. A dash may also be found.
He still smoked, but he drank no more. (London)
Tom was a Whig, while Esmond was a Tory. (Thackeray)
Her own limits were the limits of her horizon; but limited minds can recognize limitation only in others. (London)
He was driven out into the cold world, he must submit — but he forgave them. (Twain)
Clauses joined by the conjunctive adverbs yet, whereas, still asa rule are separated by a semicolon. A comma is used but seldom.
It gave him exquisite delight to watch every movement and play of those lips as they enunciated the words she spoke; yet they were not ordinary lips such as all men and women had. (London)
Upon the other step was Mr. Jonas; whereas the youngest gentleman was deep in the booking-office among the black and red plackards. (Dickens)
§ 11.Clauses joined by causative-consecutive conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs are as a rule separated by a comma or a semicolon.
"Who?" asked Clyde, pretending an innocence he could not physically verify, for his cheeks and forehead flushed. (Dreiser)
Don't approach me; for I hate you beyond measure. (Bennett)
Clauses joined by the conjunction so are separated by a comma.
It was clear that something had happened, so we eased up. (Jerome)
Occasionally we find a dash or a colon before the conjunctions for and so.
Aunt Polly asked him questions — for she wanted to trap him into damaging revealments. (Twain)
Becky was gone to her Constantinople home to stay with her parents during vacations — so there was no bright side to life anywhere. (Twain)
There is an increasing tendency to discard the comma between coordinate clauses, but it is still desirable before but and obligatory before for, while, whilst, whereas, only.
§ 12. As has been stated in Chapter XVII, § 6, a sentence containing direct speech consists of two independent clauses.
Direct speech is given in quotation marks. The clause containing direct speech is separated from the other coordinate clause, which introduces the direct speech, by a comma.
The lady said to her friend, "Why, Rawdon, it's Captain Dobbin." (Thackeray)
"Come in and have your milk," he said. (Galsworthy)
A colon is also possible.
Bosinney replied coolly: "The work is a remarkable one." (Galsworthy)
'June's not here," said his father hastily: "went off to-day on a visit." (Galsworthy)
If the clause containing direct speech is interrogative or exclamatory, a note of interrogation or a note of exclamation is used; the clause is not separated from the other clause by a stop, if the clause containing direct speech precedes the other. If it follows the other clause, a comma or a semicolon is used.
"Where do you get your things?" he said in an aggravated voice. (Galsworthy)
"I'd no idea it was so good!" he said. (Galsworthy)
She sank down by his side and cried: "Oh, Phil! it's all so horrid!" (Galsworthy)
Then Soames asked: "When do you expect to have finished?" (Galsworthy)