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Attributive appositive clauses.

Attributive appositive clauses disclose the meaning of the antece­dent, which is expressed by an abstract noun. An attributive appositive clause is not separated from the principal clause by a comma.

Appositive clauses are chiefly introduced by the conjunction that, occasionally by the conjunction whether or by the adverbs how and why. They are not joined to the principal clause asyndetically.

He stopped in the hope that she would speak. (Dickens)

And then she had a nightmare conviction that she'd lost her sense of direction and was going the wrong way. (Lindsay)

I have a presentiment that he i£ bringing trouble and misery with him into the house. (Collins)

With his former doubt whether this dry hard personage were quite in earnest, Clennam again turned his eyes attentively upon his face. (Dickens)

There was no reason why she should not read it {the book). (Hichens)

Thus to Cytherea and Owen Gray the question how their lives would end seemed the deepest of possible enigmas. (Hardy)

The use of relative pronouns in attributive relative clauses.

As has already been stated, attributive relative clauses are introduced by the following relative pronouns: who, which, that, as. In using these pronouns the following rules should be observed:

1. If the antecedent is a noun denoting a living being, who or whose are mostly used.

Kate turned to the general, whowas near her, his face expres­sionless, yet alert. (Lawrence)

A widow is a woman whosehusband is dead.

Whom is possible instead of who when it has the function of the object in the relative clause.

The man whomI wanted to see was away on holiday.

But in spoken English who or that are preferred to whom.

The man who/thatI wanted to see was away on holiday.

2. If the antecedent is a noun denoting an inanimate object, which is mostly used.

In this room, whichwas never used, a light was burning. (Dick­ens)

The castle, whichstood on the highest platform of the clustered hills, was built of rough-hewn limestone. (Eliot)

 

3. The pronoun that may be used both when the antecedent is a noun denoting a living being and when it is a noun denoting an inanimate object. But it should be noted that the use of this pronoun in attributive clauses is limited; it is chiefly used in the following cases:

(a) if the antecedent is the pronoun all, everything or nothing.

All thatshe dreams comes true. (Dickens)

In a word, everything thatgoes to make life precious, that boy had. (Twain)

(b) if the antecedent is modified by an adjective in the superlative degree, by the adjective only, or by the indefinite pronoun any.

The door opened, and there entered to us, quietly, the most re­markable-looking man thatI had ever seen. (Collins)

The Moonstone was the only object thatinterested him in the smallest degree. (Collins)

Any evil thatpeople say of him is false. (Eliot)

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■Nîte. In these cases (a, b) the attributive clause may be connected with the principal clause asyndetically.

Time is all I want. (Dreiser)

Everything I could do to free myself came into my mind... (Eliot)

It was the worst Sunday he had spent in his life. (Dreiser)

I think she is the only really happy woman I have ever met with. (Collins)

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4. If the antecedent is a noun modified by the demonstrative pro­noun such the relative pronoun as is used.

For on the evening appointed for the Vauxhall party... there came onsuch a thunderstorm asonly happens on Vauxhall nights, and asobliged the young people, perforce, to remain at home. (Thackeray)

Adverbial clauses.

An adverbial clause performs the function of an adverbial modifier. It can modify a verb, an adjective or an adverb in the principal clause.

He stopped as Kravat came rushing out. (Heym)

He was getting on better than he'd expected. (Lindsay)

Frank... returned to the auction room as fast as his legs would carry him. (Dreiser)

According to their meaning we distinguish the following kinds of adverbial clauses: adverbial clauses of time, place, cause (reason), pur­pose, condition, concession, result, manner, and comparison.

Adverbial clauses are joined to-the principal clause by means of subordinating conjunctions; they are not joined to the principal clause asyndetically except sometimes adverbial clauses of condi­tion.

An adverbial clause may precede the clause to which it is subor­dinated or follow it. In the first case it is separated from the principal clause by a comma, in the second, as a rule, no comma is used. An adverbial clause may also interrupt the principal clause, in which case a comma is used at the beginning and at the end of it.

When things are at the worst, they're sure to mend. (Collins)

He was sipping the whisky and soda when she returned. (Cronin)

The first words, when we had taken our seats, were spoken by my lady. (Collins)

 

If we have two or more homogeneous adverbial clauses they are separated from each other by a comma.

He (Oliver) was still the same gentle, attached, affectionate crea­ture that he had been when pain and suffering had wasted his strength, and when he was dependent for every slight attention and comfort on those who tended him. (Dickens)


Date: 2015-12-18; view: 1826


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