The EU single market has the largest GDP of any economy in the world.
In November 2010, the EU Commission had 1091 pending infringement proceedings against the member states in relation to the single market. This was a reduction of 11% on the previous six months.
" Almost half of the infringement proceedings launched by the Commission relate to the environment and taxation (470 out of the 1091 in November 2010).
In 2010, the 'Eurotariff' limited the cost of making a mobile phone call within the EU to 32 pence, and it limited the cost of sending a text message to 9 pence.
By standardising national regulations, the single market makes it easier to do business in the EU and contributes to faster economic growth.
Economic ties are good for European stability because they make conflicts like World War II unthinkable today.
A single market helps ensure an open, liberal Europe.
National governments continue to resist single market measures, so the system can't work properly.
A single market can never operate across an area with such different cultures and levels of wealth.
The single market hasn't removed regulations - it has just moved them to a European level.
'A fully robust and fully operational single market is the main vehicle for economic union.' - Mario Monti, Internal Market Commissioner, 1999-2004
'That the single market is not yet delivering growth and jobs at its full potential can in large part be put down to the successful defence of established interests to the detriment of society at large.' - José Manuel Barroso, EU Commission President, 2004-09
'The single market is more and more necessary and less and less popular.' - Michel Barnier, EU Internal Market Commissioner, November 2010
Free Trade: international trade when there is no restriction on the import or export of goods.
Customs Union: a group of economies with no internal barriers to trade and a common external tariff.
Mutual Recognition: the principle that goods sold in one part of the single market cannot be excluded from another.
Value-added tax (VAT): an indirect tax on most sales of goods and services.
Europe 2020 strategy: underpins all EU policy regarding the Single Market. It particularly aims to create jobs and an inclusive society.
Economy of Scale: the increase in profit made by a business when it can produce and sell more without increasing costs.
Questions and tasks:
1. What tasks were set by Article 2 of the EEC Treaty?
2. Why was it necessary to open up borders within the MS?
3. When was the Single market introduced?
4. What measures were taken to make the Single Market work?
5. What year is formally regarded as the date of the Single Market introduction?
6. State the importance of the Single Market for people, for firms, for banks, companies and individuals.
7. Speak on the advantages of the Single Market.
8. Name stages to the Single Act.
9. What are the goals of the Single Market?
10. Comment on the essence of the Single European Act (SEA).
11. What was the key innovation of the SEA?
12. What policies were also included?
13. What CHARTER was proclaimed?
14. Explain how new social and economic cohesion between rich and poor regions was achieved.
15. What were the Research and Development progress aims?
THE 19TH CENTURY
1. THE WAR OF 1812
In 1803, war had broken out again between France and Great Britain, and each of them wanted to stop American ships from trading with its enemy. The ships were seized, and kidnapped American sailors were forced to serve on British ships. Settlers on the western frontier were also in danger. Indian raids against frontier settlements were increasing. A powerful Shawnee leader named Tecumseh was trying to unite the tribes against the settlers (later he joined the British and was killed in a battle). From their colony of Canada, the British might try to gain control of the Old Northwest.
The country was not prepared to fight a war, the army and navy had been kept small by Jefferson and Madison. The navy had only sixteen ships. Like Jefferson, President James Madison wanted to avoid war. And New England merchants were opposed to war.
Congressmen from the West and the South were the ones most eager for war hoping to conquer Canada and to gain Spanish Florida (Spain was Britain's ally). Finally this political grouping (they were called War Hawks) got their way, and the United States declared war on Great Britain in the spring of 1812.
Despite many problems, American forces tried to capture Canada. Three different invasions were tried, and all three failed. The British struck back and captured Detroit. The war dragged on for two years. Neither side was able to win.
In 1814 British troops landed on the Atlantic coast and marched on Washington. American forces were taken by surprise and fled. Even President Madison was forced to leave the city. Some government buildings were burnt. Soon afterward, British ships sailed into Baltimore harbor and attacked Fort McHenry. The attack was heavy, but the American forces did not surrender and the British failed to capture the fort.
This victory in the course of war was also connected in the minds of Americans with one more significant event - the writing of “The Star-Spangled Banner". This poem conveyed the patriotic feeling of its author, an American lawyer named Francis Scott Key, who watched the attack from a ship in the harbor. When he saw the American flag still flying over the fort after the long night of bombardment, the following lines came to him:
0 say, can you see, by the dawn’s early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilights last gleaming?
Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight,
0 'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming
And the rocket's red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
0 say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave
0 'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
The poem was printed in newspapers all over the country. It became very popular and was soon set to music. (Years later, 1931, Congress passed a law to make the song the American national anthem).
In January 1815, at New Orleans, came the greatest triumph for American forces. General Andrew Jackson was in charge of defending the city against the British attack, the defenses was well prepared, and the Battle of New Orleans was an American victory.
The Spanish government could not keep the American settlers out of Florida, and in 1819 Spain gave up all of Florida to the United States.
Why did the war between Britain and France make problems for the United States?
Who were the War Hawks and what were their aspirations?
Where were the important battles fought in the War of 1812?