canvass(n) - the act of examining and counting the returns of votes cast at a public election to determine authenticity.
caucus(n) - a meeting of the legal voters of any political party
assembled for the purpose of choosing delegates or for the nomination
of candidates for office. chancellor(n) - the name given in some states to thejudge (or the
presiding judge) of a court of chancery.
~ of the Exchequer - head of the department of the English
government which has charge of the collection of the national
~ of the University - a university president, or chief executive officer
of higher education system in certain states. checks and balances(n) (the system of -)- arrangement of
governmental powers where powers of one governmental branch
check or balance those of other branches. civil(adj) (~ list, ~ servant) - see Ch. I. Confederation(n) (Articles of~)- the compact among the thirteen
original states that established the first government of the United
States. constituency(n) - the inhabitants of an electoral district.
constituent(n) - a person who gives authority to another to act for
him. • convention(n) 1.- an assembly of delegates chosen by a political party,
or by the party organization in a larger or smaller territory, to
nominate candidates for an approaching election.
2. a treaty, an agreement, a commercial agreement, a contract. county(n) 1. GB - division of GB, the largest unit of local government
2. US - the largest territorial division for local government in state.
- ~ court. consensus (n) - see Ch. I.
debate(n) - formal discussion, e.g. at a public meeting or in Parliament.
- debate (v).
department(n) (US) - the largest unit of the executive branch, covering a broad area of government responsibility. The heads of the departments (secretaries) form the president's cabinet.
dissolve (v) (~ Parliament)- to terminate, cancel, annul.
election(n) - a formal procedure for voting.
- presidential ~.
- to hold, schedule an -.
- to win/lose an ~.
- elect (v).
- elector (n).
- electoral (adj).
electoral campaign(n) - an organized effort to persuade voters to choose one candidate over others competing for the same office. electoral college(n) - a body of electors who are chosen by voters to cast ballots for president and vice president. execute(v) (a law) - to give effect to; to make legally binding.
- execution (n).
executive(adj) - as distinguished from the legislative and judicial departments (branches) of government, the executive department is that which is charged with the detail of carrying the laws into effect and securing their due observance.
- ~ department (n).
- ~ officer (n).
- -powers (n).
federal(adj) - 1. belonging to the federal government or union of states. 2. founded on ,or organized under, the Constitution of the United States.
~ courts (n) - the courts of the US (as distinguished from state, county or city courts) created either by Art III of the US Constitution or Congress.
- ~ government (n).
federalism(n) - the division of power among a central government
and regional governments. front bench (n) - see Ch. I.
impartial(adj) - treating all alike; unbiased; equitable, fair and just. impeach(v) - to proceed against a public officer (e.g. President) for
crime or misfeasance, before a proper court, by the presentation of a
written accusation ("articles of impeachment").
impeachment(n) - the formal charging of a government official with
any high crimes and misdemeanors. judicial(adj) (branch)- the branch of government that interprets laws.
- ~ review.
Judiciary(n) - 1. the branch of government invested with the judicial power.
2. the system of courts in a country (also Judicial system).
3. the body of Judges.
justice(n) - 1. proper administration of laws.
2. title given to judge, particularly to judges of US and state supreme courts, and as well to judges of appellate courts.
Associate ~s - judges of courts, other than the presiding or chief justice.
Supreme - (also Chief ~) - the presiding, most senior, or principal justice of a court.
~ of the Peace (GB) - a lay magistrate empowered chiefly to administer summary justice in minor cases.
knight(n) (GB) - in English law, the next personal dignity after the nobility, having several orders and degrees. - knighthood (n).
legislate(v) - to enact laws or pass resolutions via legislation, in contrast to court-made laws.
legislative(adj) (branch)- the law-making branch of government.
legislation(n) - 1. the act of giving or enacting laws.
2. the power to make laws.
3. laws enacted by lawmaking body (e.g. by Congress). legislature(n)- the department, assembly or body of persons that
makes statutory laws for a state or nation (e.g. by Congress). majority(n) - the number (of votes) greater than half of any total.
- ~ leader - the head of the majority party in the Senate.
— rule - the principle that the decision of a group must reflect the preference of more than half of those participating.
- ~ of seats.
— vote - vote by more than half of voters for candidate or other, matter on ballot.
manifesto (n) (of a party)- public declaration or proclamation of
political or social principles. minority(n) - the smaller number (of votes).
— rights - the benefits of government that cannot be denied to any citizens by majority decisions.
monarchy(n) - a government in which the supreme power is vested in a single person.
- constitutional (limited) -.
- monarch (n).
nominate(v) (as, for) - to designate as an official candidate of a political party.
- nomination (n) (to).
- nominee (n) - a person who has been nominated.
overrule(v) (also override)- tosupersede, to annul; to reject by subsequent action or decision.
- ~ a veto, decision.
peer(n) (GB) - (~ of the realm) - a person with the right to sit in the House of Lords.
Life ~ - a person elected to the House of Lords for life (contrasted with a hereditary ~).
- peerage(n) - 1. the whole body of peers. 2. rank of peer.
poll(v) - 1 .to vote at an election. 2. receive a certain number of votes.
- -ing-booth (-station) - place where voters go to record votes.
- -ing day - day appointed for a poll. poll(n) -1. voting at an election.
2. list of voters; counting of the voters.
3. place where voting takes place.
(public) opinion - - survey of public opinion by putting questions to a
representative selection of persons. primary (election)-a preliminary election conducted within a political
party to select candidates who will run for public office in a
subsequent election. property(n) - 1. possessions, things owned.
2. the unrestricted and exclusive right to a thing.
- personal - - movable belongings.
- private ~ - property belonging absolutely to an individual of which he has the exclusive right of disposition.
- real - - land; buildings (or whatever is erected or growing upon or affixed to land).
- ~ law. proportional representation(n) -an electoral system that awards
legislative seats to political parties in proportion to the number of
votes won in an election. referendum(n) - an election on a policy issue. representative government(n) -(also called indirect democracy) - a
system of rule in which citizens participate by electing public officials
to make government decisions for them. resign(v) (from) - to give up a post.
-resignation (n) (from). revenue(n) - income, esp. the total annual income of the State.
- public -s - the income which a government collects and receives into its treasury, and is appropriated for the payment of its expenses.
secretary (n) (US) - head of an executive department, member of the
President's Cabinet.(e.g. ~ of State). seizure (n) (of property) - the act of taking possession of property, e.g.
for a violation of law or by virtue of an execution of a judgement.
- seize (v).
Shadow Cabinet (n) (GB) - group formed from the leaders of the Parliamentary Opposition, i.e. those who might form a new cabinet if there is a change of government after a general election.
sheriff (n) (US) - the chief executive and administrative office of a county, being chosen by popular election.
sovereign (n) - 1. a chief ruler with supreme power. 2. a king or other ruler in a monarchy.
- sovereignty (n).
tax (n) - a charge by the government on the income of an individual, corporation, or on the value of an estate or gift or property.
- ~ law.
- to impose, levy, put a ~ (on).
- to collect a ~ (from)
- to cut, lower, reduce ~s (vs to increase, raise ~s).
- to pay a ~ (on).
taxation (n) - the process of taxing or imposing a tax. term of office (n) - the period during which elected officer or appointee
is entitled to hold office, perform its functions and enjoy its privileges. township (n) (US) - in some of the states, the name given to the civil and
political subdivisions of a county. veto (n) (of, over) (US) - the President's disapproval of a bill that has
been passed by both houses of Congress, which can be overridden by
a two-thirds vote in each house of Congress.
- veto (v).
- to exercise, impose, use a ~.
- to override, overrule a ~.
violate(v) - to break (a law, a treaty, an oath, etc.).
- to commit a violation.
- in violation of (a law).
vote (n) - right to give an expression of opinion or will by persons for or against sb or sth, esp. by ballot or by putting up of hands.
- ~ (v) (for/against).
- ~* (v) (on/upon, e.g. a resolution).
- voter (n).
You - The Jury
Unit I. A Handbook on Jury Service.....................................................103
Unit II. Justice?.....................................................................................115
Unit III. Language Activities. Lady Wyatt Accused of Shop-Lifting.. 118