PART 1- Read the text below and decide which answer (A, Β, Ρ or D) best fits each space. There is an example at the beginning. Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet Ή1.
Earth getting darker as sunlight decreases
In a recent report, scientists (0) C that the Earth is getting darker because of pollution in the atmosphere. The reason for this (1)___________ apparent in 2001 when flights in the US were grounded for a few days and scientists (2)_____________ thatdays were brighter and nights were cooler. It is thought that pollution is (3)_____________ for this. Sunlight is reflected back into space after hitting particles created by car fumes, aerosols and aeroplanes.
Scientists (4)___________ that this phenomenon may have(5)__________the climate from becoming even warmer. They also believe that when anti-pollution laws (6)____________ into effect, the speed at which the world's climate changes will (7)____________. To the surprise of scientists (8)__________ theworld, hundreds of instruments recorded a drop of around per cent in the amount of sunshine which was (9)___________ the surface of the Earth from the late 1950s to the early 1990s.
The (10)____________ on agriculture could be very damaging, since even a one per cent reduction in sunlight is enough to reduce the growth of some crops. The factors that have led to the reduction in sunlight also cause various environmental problems, such as air pollution and acid rain. Some scientists believe that the reflection of heat has (11)__________ the ocean cooler. As a result, less rain forms and this may have played a (12)____________ in changing weather patterns in the last few years.
PART 2 For questions 1-12, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet Ή1.
More than just a pretty face?
There are many stories of dolphins helping people, (0) _such_ as saving swimmers from shark attacks by gathering round them or shepherding them to safety. (1) ___________ these stories are true, are dolphins really the good guys of the deep, always ready to extend a flipper toward humans (2) _______________ distress? Why do they do it and (3) _______________ makes them behave in that way? (4) _____________ dolphins help us because they like us? Scientists (5) __________________ have studied them are not entirely sure. For dolphins to act together to save humans implies some sort of code of ethics (6) _______________ the animals share, and there is little or (7) _____________ evidence for that. The (8) _______________ likely explanation is that they instinctively respond to the appearance of predators like sharks by herding weaker members of their own group into (9) _______________ safe place and there is proof that dolphins do cooperate with (10) ______________ other to ward off danger. Maybe they just mistake swimmers for part of their group. This explanation would contradict the suggestion that dolphins have genuine feelings of kindness towards humans. (11) _______________ may be that their smiling appearance gives people a romantic idea of their nature, but whatever (12) _____________ truth is, people remain fascinated by stories of rescue.
PART 3 For questions 1-10, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals in the second column to form a word that fits in the gap of the same number. There is an example at the beginning (0). Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet Ή1.
Lose your bottle!
There have been many food fads over the years driven by (0)_snobbery_ or fuelled by supermarket advertising campaigns. But amongst them, promoting bottled water is probably the most (1)_____________ . Given the luxury of cheap, clean, cold water on tap, many choose instead to pay vast sums for the very same substance, (2)______________ taken from Hawaiian springs or Icelandic glaciers and then shipped thousands of miles in tine plastic bottles to supermarket shelves. Aside from the (3)___________ damage that all those (4)________________ journeys must be doing to the planet, I wonder how many of the advertised health benefits (5)________________ remain when the water has been standing in the plastic bottles for months before a (6) ______________________ goes into a shop and buys it?
(7)_____________________ , its a ludicrous fashion that shows little sign of disappearing. It is claimed that there are over 3,000 brands of bottled water in the world and in some food (8)______________ you can even find detailed guides to different types of bottled water, along with tasting notes and (9)___________ about what to eat with each one! Surely instead of being drawn into this trend that many might regard as (10)____________ as well as stupid, we should simply aim at providing clean, drinkable water for everyone?
PART 4 For questions 1-8, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. Here is an example (0). Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet Ή1.
A very friendly taxi driver drove us into town.
Wewere driven into town bya very friendly taxi driver.
2. My views on this subject are exactly the same as yours.
There ..my views on this subject and yours.
3. I dont know why Edward left the classes so suddenly.
I dont know the classes so suddenly.
4. David went home before we arrived.
When we ..home.
5. I came here so that I could see you.
6. I think you should sell the car.
If I ..the car.
7. It was unnecessary for you to come early today, but you did.
You come early today.
8. If you drive faster, it is more dangerous.
The .dangerous it is.
PART 1 - You will hear five different students talking about studying at university. For questions 1-5, choose from the list (A-F) what is true about each student. Use the letters only once. There is one extra letter which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet Ή1.
A This students course includes more than one subject.
B This student wants to move to a different university.
C This student is unhappy with the course they have chosen.
D This students course involves practical work experience.
E This student was pleasantly surprised.
FThis student wants to live somewhere else.
PART 2 - You will hear part of a lecture about a problem related to the behaviour of certain sea creatures. For questions 1-10, complete the sentences. Write no more than two words for each answer. Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet Ή1.
Mass Strandings of Whales and Dolphins
Mass strandings: situations where groups of whales, dolphins, etc. swim onto the beach and die.
Common in areas where the (1) ________________________ can change quickly
Several other theories:
e.g. some parasites can affect marine animals (2) _____________________ , which they depend on for navigation.
Poisons from (3) ____________________ or ___________________ are commonly consumed by whales.
e.g. Cape Cod (1988) whales were killed by saxitoxin
Animals may follow prey ashore, e.g. Thurston (1995)
Unlikely because the majority of animals were not (4) _____________________ when they stranded
(5) ______________________ from military tests are linked to some recent strandings
The Bahamas (2000) stranding was unusual because the whales
were all (6) ___________________
were not in (7) _______________________
More strandings in the most (8) _______________________ species of whales
1994 dolphin stranding only the (9) ______________________ was ill
Marine Mammals Ashore (Connor) gives information about stranding (10) ___________________