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The Problem of Smoking

Smoking is the best way to bad health. Today half the men and a quarter of the women in the world smoke on the average.

Some people think that there is not much sense in refraining from smoking, since the inhabitants of many cities and even villages breathe air contaminated with industrial and automobile wastes. They are very wrong. Vehicle exhaust gases are harmful in themselves, but a smoking driver is subjected to something far more dangerous.

Take another example: according to WHO (World Health Organisation) figures, the sick rate is higher among smoking workers of the heavy engineering, chemical, ceramic, mining, building, cement and rubber industries.

The harm of tobacco smoke on women should be especially emphasized. In particular, smoking may affect the course of pregnancy. Smoking women may bring into the world crippled or abnormal children.

The evidence that exposure to other people's smoke is dangerous to health is now incontrovertible. The exposure to secondhand smoke is a serious health risk to non-smokers, increasing their chance of contracting lung cancer and heart disease. The degree of risk depends on the extent and duration of exposure. Particularly there is a high risk among workers in the hospitality industries (bar staff, casino workers and other employees in workplaces where smoking is routine). It is estimated that secondhand smoke causes one premature death a week.

In the past few years some measures have been taken to reduce smoking. There has been a growing awareness of the dangers of smoking throughout the world. The anti-smoking campaigns launched in a number of countries have brought about extensive public censure of this harmful habit and a decrease in the number of smokers among some groups of the population.

In our country the campaign to beat the cigarette habit has acquired a purposeful nature. Special legislative, medical and educational measures are being worked out.

Instructions forbid smoking among schoolchildren. Lessons on the harm of smoking have been included in courses of the anatomy, physiology and hygiene, the sale of cigarettes to minors is prohibited. Warnings against the harm of smoking are printed on packets of cigarette brands.

The ministries of railways, civil aviation, merchant marine and culture have worked out and now implement measures for regulating, limiting and restricting smoking in long-distance and suburban trains, planes, on sea vessels, in theatres, clubs, etc.

 



Write an annotation translation of the text

II Grammar

 

1. I read books ___ the evenings.

in

on

at

2. We _____ dance all night.

do can

not can

can

3. Where were you born? I ________ in Madrid.

were born

was borne

was born

4. This film is _________ than "Titanic"

more interesting

interesting

most interesting

5. They ______ five years ago.

have meeted

met

did met

6.It was nice _____ you.

to meet

on meeting

to meeting

 



7. I cut myself when I ______.

shaved

was shaving

is shaving

 



8. You _____ show your identity card before you come in.

must

might

should

 



9. I want ______ at home tonight.

stayed

to stay

staying

 



10. This time next month I _______ lectures at a university.

will be attending

will attend

attend

 



III Essay Writing

Books in my life

 



 



Signature of the examiner______________

 



 



EXAM CARD XXIX

I Reading

Cinema

Cinema plays an important role in the life of any society. It is an available popular form of art. Lots of people find going to the cinema one of the best ways of spending their leisure time. The movie audience is predominantly a young one.

Due to numerous video facilities, cinema attendances have declined sharply. But there is no denying the fact that the cinema-going habit is still a strong one.

No matter how large the place you live in is (whether it's a big city or a small provincial town, or even a settlement) there's most likely to be a cinema there.

There are such genres of feature films as the western, the thriller, the musical, the drama and the comedy. The performance lasts for two or three hours and most cinemas have at least 4 performances a day. There is no doubt that a good cinema show is an excellent entertainment and quite cheap. Films produced in the USA have dominated of late cinema screens in this country. And this tendency is growing.

As for me, I'm fond of going to the cinema. It's a pity; I don't always have time for it. It's an open secret that we live in a very difficult time now. But people do need something amusing and pleasant, something to laugh at. That's why I give my preference to comedies. The last comedy, I saw, is «Crocodile Dandy». The film tells about amusing adventures of a young lovely woman — reporter and a strong and brave crocodile hunter. At first, their relations were not friendly. She even looked down on him and he in return neglected her. But after he rescued her out of some difficult situations, their relations became more friendly. A happy end is an essential feature of American films. The same is true of this comedy. The main characters fall in love with each other in the end of the film.

 



 




Date: 2015-12-18; view: 1392


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