Ukraine is a self-contained, sovereign state. The Declaration of Ukrainian independence was proclaimed on August 24, 1991 by the Ukrainian Parliament. On December I the Referendum confirmed the Act of the independence of our state.
Ukraine has its own territory, higher and local bodies of state power (the Supreme Council and local Councils), government, national emblem, state flag and anthem.
Ukraine is a member of the United Nations Organization. Kiev, the capital of the Ukraine, its political, economic and cultural centre, is one of the most beautiful and ancient cities of the world. The Ukrainian capital maintains friendly contacts with the cities of Tampere in Finland, Kyoto in Japan, Florence in Italy, Toulouse in Prance and others.
Ukraine is located in the South East of Europe. It is one of the largest European countries. Its total area is 603,700 square kilometres.
Ukraine borders on the Russian Federation, Byelorussia, Moldova, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. Our country is washed by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov and it has very important ports.
The population of Ukraine is about 52 million inhabitants; among them are Ukrainians (73.6%), Russians (21.1%), Jews (1.3%), Byelorussians (0.8%). There are 24 administrative regions and the Crimean autonomous republic. 42 towns in the Ukraine have population of 100,000 and nine are with a population more than 500,000.
The territory of our country has an astonishing variety of landscapes. We have high mountains, vast steppes, endless forests, beautiful rivers and lakes. The largest lake of Ukraine is Swytyaz, its total area is 24.2 square kilometres and the depth is 58.5 metres. Ukraine has 131 rivers, among them are the Dnieper with its tributaries such as the Desna, the Prypyat, the Dniester, the Bug, the Donets. The Dnieper is the main river in Ukraine which divides the country into Right-bank and Left-bank territories.
The flora and fauna of our country are extremely rich. Almost all kinds of European animals and birds can be found on the territory of our vast land. Ukraine has inexhaustible natural wealth. It possesses enormous tracts of woodland, vast tracts of fertile arable lands and fine pastures.
Ukraine is developed industrial and agricultural country. Its achievements in science and culture are known all over the world. Ukraine is a big metallurgic, machine-building and power region, a producer of chemicals and agricultural raw materials. Ukraine is rich in different ores and other natural resources. The basis of industrial development is metal. Ukrainian scientists have discovered a way of manufacturing artificial diamonds and have developed the methods of electric welding. Ukraine produces planes and ocean liners, tractors and combines, electronic microscopes and TV-sets, computers. The country exports manufactured goods to more than 70 foreign countries. Our country has many industrial raw materials; it has rich deposits of iron, metals, coal, oil, gas, different ores, marble and other natural resources. Ukraine has metallurgical and heavy industries.
The fertile black soil and the favourable climate have long facilitated the growth of agriculture in Ukraine.
Ukraine has an ancient history. The State of Kyiv Rus situated on the territory of the present Ukraine was set up in the 9th century. It was a powerful feudal state with highly developed culture and various crafts widely known throughout Europe.
From the 13th century onwards Ukraine was continuously struggling against invasions by the Mongols, the Turks, the Crimean Tatars, Lithuanian and Polish rulers. The long struggle of the Ukrainian people for independence continued victoriously under the leadership of B. Khmelnytsky.
Ukraine has its own original culture and art. Ukraine has many professional theatres and Philarmonic societies. The National Symphony Orchestra of Ukraine, the Gryhory Veryovka Ukrainian People's Choir, the Dance Company of Ukraine are known not only in the country but all over the world.
Over the last years people of Ukraine display a keen interest in the Ukrainian history and artistic heritage. There is a new approach to the development of culture, arts and languages. Ukraine pursues a policy of peace. Now Ukraine establishes new relations with countries throughout the world. It sets direct contacts with them signing agreements and treaties. The international activities of Ukraine are aimed at strengthening peace and security in the world. Ukraine has been and is being recognized by a vast number of countries.
2.Find in the text English equivalents to the following words and word combinations:
бути проголошеним, гімн, порт, незвичайна різноманітність ландшафтів, сільськогосподарський, сировина, чорнозем, експорт, промислові товари, ремесла, вугілля, невичерпний, культурна спадщина, угода, проводити політику, безпека.
3.Find in the text synonyms to the following words:
to show, astonishing, age-old, to have, products, extensively, pact.
4.Find in the text antonyms to the following words: