Men use languages in order to communicate with each other. When the man wishes to communicate with the computer he uses in the same way "languages" such as BASIC, PASCAL, ADA, FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, PL/m and others.
BASIC is considered to be one of the easiest programming languages to learn. It is now used almost universally.
PASCAL is a general purpose high level programming language. It is named after the famous French mathematician, Blaise Pascal. In 1642 he designed and built the first mechanical calculator, the “Pascaline”.
ADA is a high level programming language. It is a PASCAL-based language, but much more comprehensive than PASCAL. It was named after Augusta Ada Byron (1816 —1852), daughter of the English poet, Lord Byron.
FORTRAN is a problem oriented high level programming language for scientific and mathematical use. FORTRAN was the first high level programming language. It was developed in 1956 and was designed to easily express mathematical formulas for computer processing. It is still widely used as a programming language.
ALGOL — was developed as an international language for the expression of the algorithms between individuals as well as a programming language. It was introduced in the early 1960s. ALGOL was originally known as AIL or International Algebraic Language.
COBOL is internationally accepted programming language developed for general commercial use. The advantages of using COBOL are that it is relatively simple to learn and programs can be quickly written and tested. Programmers can easily understand programs not written by themselves.
Because of extraordinary technological development during the past decades, the term computer is becoming a household word. Computer applications have expanded to such breadth that the computer is now an integral part of virtually every type of business and industrial enterprise.
The number of electronic computers used in any given field of human activity is sometimes believed to indicate the degree of its modernity. For example, the more computers scientific institute uses the more modern it is believed to be. It is not always born in mind, however, that computers alone represent only what is called the hardware, i. e. the machinery together with its subtle technical and logical design. In order that the hardware may be used effectively, another essential factor is needed: the so-called software or applied thoughts. The preparation of computer programs, the working out of the logical aspects of material to be manipulated in a computer, takes up as much, if not more, time as the actual production of the hardware and is by no mean easier. The software, as most intangible product, is not always capable of being readily evaluated. This, however, does not change the fact that it is at least as decisive as the hardware in obtaining solutions to concrete scientific and technological problems.
There are two basic types of electronic computers: digital and analogue. Each type has its uses in various fields. However, they have one thing in common: for their effective operation they require ingeniously thought-out software.
2. Find in the text English equivalents to the following words and word combinations:
cпілкуватися, програмна мова, вважатися, більш зрозумілий, міжнародна мова, відносно легкий, десятиліття, розширюватись, промислове підприємство, визначати рівень, сучасність, суттєвий факт, обробляти, логічні аспекти, отримувати рішення, цифровий, аналоговий, потребувати.
3. Make up sentences from the following sets of words. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
1. Is, BASIC, to be, considered, one of programming, the easiest, to learn, languages.
2. A general, PASCAL, is, high, language, programming, level, purpose.
3. COBOL, the advantages, it, is, simple, relatively, of using, are, that, to learn, programs, and, quickly, can, be, tested, and, written.
4. The software, intangible, product, most, as, always, is not, being, capable of, evaluated, readily.