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C this/these, that/thoseused with one/ones

When there is some idea of comparison or selection, the pronoun one/onesis often placed after these demonstratives, but it is not essential except when thisetc is followed by an adjective:

This chair is too low. I'll sit in that (one).

I like this (one) best

I like this blue one/these blue ones.

2 Nouns

10 Kinds and function

A There are four kinds of noun in English: Common nouns, dog, man, table Proper nouns,: France, Madrid, Mrs Smith, Tom Abstract nouns: beauty, chanty, courage, fear, joy Collective nouns: crowd, flock, group, swarm, team

B A noun can function as:

The subject of a verb: Tom arrived

The complement of the verbs be, become, seem: Tom is an actor.

The object of a verb- / saw Tom

The object of a preposition: / spoke to Tom.

A noun can also be in the possessive case: Tom's books.

11 Gender

A Masculine: men, boys and male animals (pronoun he/they). Feminine' women, girls and female animals (pronoun she/they)

Neuter: inanimate things, animals whose sex we don't know and sometimes babies whose sex we don't know (pronoun it/they) Exceptions' ships and sometimes cars and other vehicles when regarded with affection or respect are considered feminine. Countries when referred to by name are also normally considered feminine The ship struck an iceberg, which tore a huge hole in her side Scotland lost many of her bravest men in two great rebellions

B Masculine/feminine nouns denoting people 1 Different forms.

(a) boy, girl gentleman, lady son, daughter bachelor, spinster husband, wife uncle, aunt bridegroom, bride man, woman widower, widow father, mother nephew, niece

Mam exceptions:

baby infant relative

child parent spouse

cousin relation teenager

(b) duke, duchess king, queen prince, princess earl, countess lord, lady

2 The majority of nouns indicating occupation have the same form

artist cook driver guide

assistant dancer doctor etc Mam exceptions.

actor, actress host, hostess

conductor, conductress manager, manageress

heir, heiress steward, stewardess

hero, heroine waiter, waitress

Also salesman, saleswoman etc , but sometimes -person is used instead of -man, -woman' salesperson, spokesperson.

C Domestic animals and many of the larger wild animals have different

forms:

bull, cow duck, drake ram, ewe stallion, mare

cock, hen gander, goose stag, doe tiger, tigress dog, bitch lion, lioness

Others have the same form

12 Plurals

A The plural of a noun is usually made by adding s to the singular:

day, days dog, dogs house, houses s is pronounced /s/ after a p, k or f sound. Otherwise it is pronounced Izl.

When s is placed after ce, ge, se or ze an extra syllable (/iz/) is added to the spoken word.

Other plural forms

B Nouns ending in o or ch, sh, ss or x form their plural by adding es: tomato, tomatoes brush, brushes box, boxes

church, churches kiss, kisses

But words of foreign origin or abbreviated words ending in o add s

only:

dynamo, dynamos kimono, kimonos piano, pianos kilo, kilos photo, photos soprano, sopranos



When es is placed after ch, sh, ss or x an extra syllable (/iz/) is added

to the spoken word

C Nouns ending in y following a consonant form their plural by dropping the y and adding ies'

baby, babies country, countries fly, flies lady, ladies Nouns ending in y following a vowel form their plural by adding s-

boy, boys day, days donkey, donkeys guy, guys

D Twelve nouns ending in f or fe drop the f or fe and add ves These nouns are calf, half, knife, leaf, life, loaf, self, sheaf, shelf, thief, wife, wolf:

loaf, loaves wife, wives wolf, wolves etc

The nouns hoof, scarf and wharf take either s or vesin the plural: hoofs or hooves scarfs or scarves wharfs or wharves

Other words ending in f or feadd s in the ordinary way: cliff, cliffs handkerchief, handkerchiefs safe, safes

E A few nouns form their plural by a vowel change:

foot, feet louse, lice mouse, mice woman, women

goose, geese man, men tooth, teeth The plurals of child and ox are children, oxen.

F Names of certain creatures do not change in the plural fish is normally unchanged, fishes exists but is uncommon. Some types of fish do not normally change m the plural:

carp pike salmon trout

cod plaice squid turbot

mackerel

but if used in a plural sense they would take a plural verb. Others add s:

crabs herrings sardines

eels lobsters sharks

deer and sheep do not change: one sheep, two sheep. Sportsmen who shoot duck, partridge, pheasant etc. use the same form for singular and plural But other people normally add s for the plural: ducks, partridges, pheasants.

The word game, used by sportsmen to mean an animal/animals hunted, is always in the singular,-and takes a singular verb

G A few other words don't change-

aircraft, craft (boat/boats) quid (slang for £1)

counsel (barristers working in court)

Some measurements and numbers do not change (see chapter 36). For uncountable nouns, see 13

H Collective nouns, crew, family, team etc., can take a singular or plural verb; singular if we consider the word to mean a single group or unit:

Our team is the best or plural if we take it to mean a number of individuals:

Our team are wearing their new jerseys.

When a possessive adjective is necessary, a plural verb with theiris more usual than a singular verb with its,though sometimes both are possible:

The jury is considenng its verdict.

The jury are considenng their verdict

I Certain words are always plural and take a plural verb:

clothes police garments consisting of two parts:

breeches pants pyjamas trousers etc and tools and instruments consisting of two parts:

binoculars pliers scissors spectacles

glasses scales shears etc.

Also certain other words including:

arms (weapons) particulars

damages (compensation) premises/quarters

earnings nches

goods/wares savings

greens (vegetables) spirits (alcohol)

grounds stairs

outskirts surroundings

pains (trouble/effort) valuables

] A number of words ending in ics, acoustics, athletics, ethics, hysterics, mathematics, physics, politics etc , which are plural in form, normally take a plural verb

His mathematics are weak But names of sciences can sometimes be considered singular:

Mathematics is an exact science

K Words plural in form but singular in meaning include news:

The news is good certain diseases:

mumps rickets shingles and certain games.

billiards darts draughts

bowls dominoes

L Some words which retain their original Greek or Latin forms make their

plurals according to the rules of Greek and Latin'

crisis, crises I kraisis/, /'kraisnz/ phenomenon, phenomena erratum, errata radius, radii

memorandum, memoranda terminus, termini

oasis, oases /au'eisis/, /au'eisrz/

But some follow the English rules

dogma, dogmas gymnasium, gymnasiums

formula, formulas (though formulae is used by scientists)

Sometimes there are two plural forms with different meanings appendix, appendixes or appendices (medical terms) appendix, appendices (addition/s to a book) index, indexes (in books), indices (in mathematics)

Musicians usually prefer Italian plural forms for Italian musical terms: libretto, libretti tempo, tempi

But s is also possible, librettos, tempos.

M Compound nouns 1 Normally the last word is made plural:

boy-friends break-ins travel agents

But where man and woman is prefixed both parts are made plural: men drivers women drivers

2 The first word is made plural with compounds formed of verb + er nouns + adverbs:

hangers-on lookers-on runners-up and with compounds composed of noun + preposition + noun: ladies-in-waiting sisters-in-law wards of court

3 Initials can be made plural:

MPs (Members of Parliament) VIPs (very important persons) OAPs (old age pensioners) UFOs (unidentified flying objects)

13Uncountable nouns (also known as non-count nouns or mass nouns)

A 1 Names of substances considered generally:

bread cream gold paper tea

beer dust ice sand water

cloth gin jam soap wine

coffee glass oil stone wood

2 Abstract nouns:

advice experience horror pity

beauty fear information relief

courage help knowledge suspicion

death hope mercy work

3 Also considered uncountable in English:

baggage damage luggage shopping

camping furniture parking weather

These, with hair, information, knowledge, news, rubbish, are sometimes countable in other languages.

B Uncountable nouns are always singular and are not used with a/an: / don't want (any) advice or help. I want (some) information. He has had no experience in this sort of work.

These nouns are often preceded by some, any, no, a littleetc. or by

nouns such as bit, piece, slice etc. + of:

a bit of news a grain of sand a pot of jam

a cake of soap a pane of glass a sheet of paper

a drop of oil a piece of advice

C Many of the nouns in the above groups can be used in a particular sense and are then countable. They can take a/an in the singular and can be used in the plural. Some examples are given below. hair (all the hair on one's head) is considered uncountable, but if we consider each hair separately we say one hair, two hairs etc.:

Her hair is black Whenever she finds a grey hair she pulls it out We drink beer, coffee, gin, but we can ask for a (cup of) coffee, a gin, two gins etc. We drink wine, but enjoy a good wine We drink it from a glass or from glasses We can walk in a wood/woods

experience meaning 'something which happened to someone' is countable:

He had an exciting experience/some exciting experiences

(= adventure/s) last week work meaning 'occupation/employment/a job/jobs' is uncountable:

He is looking for work/for a job

works (plural only) can mean 'factory' or 'moving parts of a machine'. works (usually plural) can be used of literary or musical compositions:

Shakespeare's complete works

D Some abstract nouns can be used in a particular sense with a/an: a help:

My children are a great help to me. A good map would be a help. a relief:

It was a relief to sit down. a knowledge + of:

He had a good knowledge of mathematics. a dislike/dread/hatred/horror/love +of is also possible:

a love of music a hatred of violence

a mercy/pity/shame/wondercan be used with that-clauses introduced by it:

// 's a pity you weren 't here. It's a shame he wasn 't paid. it + be + a pity/shame+ infinitive is also possible:

It would be a pity to cut down these trees


Date: 2015-12-18; view: 835


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B bed, church, court, hospital, prison, school/college/university | E a fear/fears, a hope/hopes, a suspicion/suspicions
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