This interrelation between populations, such as “parasitism” is defined by the following combination of signs.
A) «- -»;
B) «+ +»;
C) «+ -»;
D) «+ 0»;
E) «- 0».
3. The observation and data collection about ecological situations on the planet is called:
A) global monitoring
B) chemical monitoring
C) physical monitoring
D) biological monitoring
E) sociological monitoring
4. One of the objectives of ecology is the study of:
A) diversity of fauna;
B) molecular organization of living organisms;
C) peculiarities of biochemical processes in the cells of various tissues;
D) display of physical laws in living organisms;
E) organization of constant observation (monitoring) of conditions of natural environment.
5. The reasons of origins of ecological problems:
A) violation of dynamic balance in the nature;
B) condition of the use of natural resources;
C) inability of a man to conduct a purposeful economical activity, which is defined by the prior up-brining and education;
D) critical state of interaction of society and nature;
E) direct or indirect destruction of various kinds of biosphere.
6. The concept “ecosystem” is:
A) sequential change of biocoenosis, which successively appear on the same territory in the result of influence of natural and anthropogenic factors;
B) sphere of “constantly working biological rotation in biosphere, the whole set of substances, the whole set of forms of energy, continuously circulating in this big cycle” (A.V. Timofeyev-Resovskiy);
C) group of species of one type, which are in the state of interaction; living in one common territory and producing generations;
D) system of jointly inhabiting species of various types and conditions of their existence, which are in regular interrelation with each other;
E) combination of natural and social systems of the planet Earth.
7. The concept “noosphere” is:
A) unification of people based on the features, related to the life in community (industrial, cultural, religious)
B) field of circumplanetary space, physical properties of which are defined by the magnetic pole of Earth and its interaction with stream of charged particles of cosmic origin;
C) historically structured steady unification of people on the definite territory, possessing common features in culture, language, mentality;
E) the highest stage of development of biosphere, related with the appearance and formation of civilized society in it, when the rational function becomes main defining factor.
8. Section of ecology “autoecology” studies:
A) patterns of self-regulation of biological systems; B) patterns of adaptation of individual organisms at the environment; C) dynamics of natural populations; D) the role of predators in regulation of population size of the victim; E) productivity of ecosystems.
9. Synecology studies: A) respiration intensity of the plant organism; B) adaptive properties of the organism in different climatic conditions;
C) lifespan of the organism;
D) the rate of growth of the organism; E) changes in species composition of the community over time.
10. Demecology studies: A) chemical composition of emissions from heavy industry; B) oil and gas processing plant emissions influence on population size of sparrows that live in the area; C) impact of wastewater on the species composition of aquatic hydrocole rivers; D) influence of the chemical components of wastewater on the metabolism of zooplankton; E) the effect of various components of wastewater on the heredity of water of organisms. 11. The greatest amount of emissions in enterprises of iron and steel are carried out in the manufacturing process of: A) pellets;
E) Rolled. 12. What is the "sanitary security zone"? A) zone within which the organized protection of air cleanliness; B) territory within which the company arranges the disposal of radioactive waste; C) the area between the residential buildings and boundaries of the industrial site, warehouse. Indoor and outdoor storage of materials and reagents, rural enterprises economy from the perspective of their expansion; D) Zone creating architectural and aesthetic barrier between the industrial and housing areas; E)Additional landscaping around the area of industrial or agricultural enterprise in order to enhance assimilation and filtering air pollutants. 13. The resource of chemical pollution of the environment: A) thermokarst;
B) underground utilities;
D) communication teams and collectors;
E) aerosols 14. To the biological pollution of the environment belongs: A) excessive expansion of commensal animals in urban areas (rats, crows, mice,pigeons); B) pesticides;
E) aerosols. 15. Physical pollution is associated with: A) penetration into the environment of heavy metal compounds;
B) phenomenon of genetic engineering; C) electromagnetic radiation;
D) production of plastics;
E) production of antibiotics. 16. Oil pollution - is: A) accident tanker fleet;
B) oil film;
C) supply of petroleum products in sea water; D) concentration of oil in sea water;
E)Oil production on the shelf. 17. The main sources of radioactive contamination of the oceans are as follows: A) untreated industrial water;
B) rainwater from urban areas; C) atmospheric transport from the continents;
D) contamination of radioactive waste, accidents, ships with nuclear reactors, disposal of radioactive waste;
E) radioactive fallout. 18. The country with the highest number of operating nuclear power plants and the maximum of their shares in total world electricity generation: A) Canada;
C) South Korea;
D) United States;
E).France. 19. The predominant types of pollution of aquatic ecosystems mining and coal industry are: A) flotation reagents, mineral suspended solids, phenols;
B) petroleum products, organic dyes; C) organic matter, ammonia nitrogen;
D) sulfates, aromatic hydrocarbons; E) benzo (a) pyrene. 20.Contaminants supplied to the environment by enterprises of the agricultural cycle: A) heavy metals;
B) organophosphate pesticides;
C) sulfur compounds;
D) domestic waste water;
E) petroleum products. 21. The living matter of the biosphere is associated with: A) orogenesis processes;
B) continuous cycling of matter in the ecosystem; C) volcanic activity of Earth;
E) solar activity. 22. Features of the current level of interaction between nature and society? A) the struggle for existence;
B) systematic relationship with the environment; C) the impact of the social nature of man, in the process, above all, work on the biosphere; D) a complex impact on the biosphere, human, cosmic, geophysical, etc. impacts; E) a qualitatively new state in the evolution of the planet, where the processes and phenomena of the biosphere are sent to the human intellect. 23. The concept of ecology: A) science that studies the set of co-inhabiting species of organisms and their conditions of existence, are in a regular relationship with one another; B) science that studies the conditions of existence, a species in interaction with the environment; C) science that studies the conditions for the existence of living organisms and the relationship between organisms and the environment; D) science that studies the conditions for the existence of individuals and organisms; E) science that studies the biogenic and abiogenous components epgeosphere of the Earth. 24. Under the community know: A) collection of individuals who have a direct similarity of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics; B) the set of freely interbreeding individuals of one species, long-existing within the same range; C) the totality of living organisms from different species that live in the same habitat; D) relationships of one kind to the environment; E) interaction of organisms with the animate and inanimate nature. 25. Object of study in ecology: A) living organisms;
B) objects animate and inanimate nature;
D) results of human activity; E) integrated and comprehensive state of the interaction between society and the environment and the possible effects of anthropogenic impacts on the biosphere.
26. Such a relationship between populations, as "mutualism," is marked by signs: A). "- -";
B). "+ +";
C) «+ -»;
D). "+ 0";
E). '- 0 ". 27. Functional classification of ecosystems based on: A). type of vegetation;
B). zoogeographic zoning;
C). differentiation of the Earth's surface in natural areas; D). diversity of climate;
E). Depending on the source, quantity and quality of the incoming energy. 28. Structural classification of ecosystems includes: A). the scale of ecosystems;
B). structural features of the biosphere; C). structure of the atmosphere;
D). natural vegetation and landscape features (land), geological and physical features (the ocean); E) a variety of energy functions. 29. What are resources? A). key components of the environment used to create the material and cultural needs of society; B) a combination of natural factors positively affecting the spiritual wealth of the people; C). real components of the biosphere that are used in agriculture as mineral or energy resources; D). relatively stable state of flora and fauna in an ecosystem that occurs during the course of plant communities; E). group of ecologically similar species belonging to the same trophic level. 30. The most common classification of human impact: A) the degree of exposure;
B). the depth of exposure;
C). by type of economic activity; D). at the time of exposure;
E). reversible and irreversible. 31. The Kyoto Protocol (1997) in respect of the acceding countries includes a commitment ... A) reduce the production of private cars by 5% until 2025; B) eliminate the use of chlorinated solvents in industry till 2010; C) to reduce or stabilize emissions of hotbed gases relative to 1991 levels; D) reduce emissions ozon demolition substances into the atmosphere by 50% by 2002 E) to reduce emissions of sulfur gases 32. The classic definition of "sustainable development" as "development that ensures the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs," was first formulated in ... A) report "Limits to Growth" (1975);
B) the report "Our Common Future" (1987); C) Declaration of Rio de Janeiro Conference on Environment and Development (1992); D) Declaration on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg (2002). 33. "Greenhouse Effect" and the destruction of the ozone layer affect ... A) the economically developed countries;
B) Russia and the CIS;
C) The Europe and America;
D) All of the countries.
E) Countries of Central Asia 34. The warming of the earth is connected ... A) with the ozone shield;
B) with the "greenhouse effect»;
C) with the appearance of smog; D) with La Niña
E) with sulfur dioxide. 35. Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer was adopted ... A), Vienna (1985);
B) New York (1997);
C) in Montreal (1987); D) in Rio de Janeiro (1992)
E) in Prague
36. Where a protocol was signed, aimed at controlling the production and the use of chlorofluorocarbon? A) in Montreal (1987);
B) in Rome (1996);
C), London (1972);
D) in Paris (1992).
E) in Prague 37. What is the year of signing the Kyoto Protocol to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions? A) 1987;
E) 1983 38. Public environmental group Greenpeace organized ... Twentieth century. A) in the 50s;
B) in the 60s;
C) in 70 years;
D) in 80 years
E) 90 years 39. That does not apply to three types of pollution? A) chemical;
E) methane 40. Acid rain - it's rain or snow, having a pH ... A) less than 5,6;
B) of about 7;
C) is about 9;
D) greater than 11.
E) of about 8.
1. Interspecific competition in a community of living organisms is studied by: A). global ecology;
C). demecology; D). synecology;
E). Geoecology. 2. The relationship of the "predator-prey" in the community of living organisms is studied by: A). global ecology;
E) 5. Geoecology. 3. Relationships "host - parasite" in the community of living organisms is studied by: A). global ecology;
E). Geoecology. 4. Competitive relationship between different types of community living: organisms is studied by: A). global ecology;
E). Geoecology. 5 .. Ecological niche – is: A). habitat for certain species; B). part of the habitat, which is used for a limited time for animals certain purposes (reproduction) C). place the species in an ecosystem, defined by its biological potential and combination of environmental factors; D). space used for feeding; E). part of the ecosystem that is used especially for food and reproduction. 6. Producers - organisms that are at trophic level: A). I; B) II; C). III; D). IV; E). V. 7. Xerophytes - plants that are adapted to environmental conditions in: A). the aquatic environment; B). ground-water environment; C). in conditions of high humidity; D). habitats with sufficient moisture; E). drylands.
8. Autotrophic organisms are the ones, which are: A). independently synthesize organic matter from inorganic compounds; B). use ready-made organic substances in the process of life; C). decompose dead organic matter; D). feed on vegetable food; E). eat food of animal origin.
9. The organisms that belong to heterotrophic organisms are: A). chemosynthetic bacteria; B). crustaceans; C). multicellular algae; D). coniferous trees; E). Tigers. 10. Heterotrophic organisms in the process of life: A). independently synthesize organic matter from inorganic using light energy (photosynthesis); B). ready consume organic matter; C). feed exclusively on inorganic compounds (CO2, H2O); D). use only the thermal energy; E). use only the electric energy 11. Toxic components of exhaust gas on a vehicle:
E). water vapor.
12. To global environmental problems include: A). increase in park city vehicles;
B). roads in rural areas;
C). low fertility in human society; D). desertification processes;
E). construction of nuclear power plants.
13. To global environmental problems include: A). increase the oxygen content in the atmosphere; B). volcanic eruptions; C). increase the layer of humus in the soil; D). reduction of pathogenic microorganisms; E). the greenhouse effect.
14. What ocean polluter is more dangerous for the living organisms at this stage? A). polyethylene;
E). waste production.
15. The bulk of carbon dioxide (CO?) Enters the atmosphere at the present stage as a result of: A). volcanic eruptions;
B). forest fires; C). oxidation of methane coming from the surface of the marsh; D). combustion of all fuels fossils; E). respiration of living organisms.
16. The global warming predicted by scientists is associated primarily with emissions to the environment: A). carbon dioxide;
D). sulfur compounds;
E). oxides of nitrogen.
17. The Kyoto protocol is an international protocol dedicated to reducing emissions; A). Freon;
B). greenhouse gases;
C). heavy metals;
E). sulfur dioxide.
18. What type of energy is the most environmentally friendly? A). thermal power plants;
C). nuclear power plants;
D). use of wind energy; E). all of these sources of energy are equivalent. 19. The difference between cleaner production of ecological production is: A). neutralization of the negative impacts of human activities; B). creating Recreation Area; C). formation of ecosystems; D). adaptation of technologies to the existing biosphere conditions; E) the planned production and reproduction of natural ingredients and conditions the environment. 20. Biotechnology - is: A). drawing program to create the technical design; B). way to obtain the necessary materials on the basis of purposeful change the genetic code of an organism; C). introduction of information technologies in various spheres of human activity; D). monitoring, evaluation and forecast of the biota; E). achievement of technical goals in biological research.
21. In biocenosis plants serve as: A). Consumers of the 1st order;
D). Consumers of order 2;
22. The role of producers in an aquatic ecosystem perform: A). Phytoplankton;
C). Predatory fish;
23. The role of consumers in an aquatic ecosystem perform: A). Algae;
B). Predatory fish;
C). Filamentous algae;
E). Flowering plants.
24. The role of decomposers in an aquatic ecosystem perform: A). Algae;
B). Predatory fish;
E). Autotrophs. 25. Relationship between populations as a "symbiosis" is marked by signs: A). "- -";
B). "+ +";
C). "+ -";
D). "+ 0";
E). '- 0 ". 26. Destructive function of living matter of the biosphere is to: A). Concentrations in the bodies of organisms of different chemical elements; B). Synthesis of organic compounds from inorganic; C). Decomposition of dead organic matter and mineral species; D). Converting light into chemical energy;
E). increase in species diversity of flora.
27. Energy function of living matter of the biosphere is to: A). Creation of the fertile soil of the earth;
B). Decomposition of dead organic matter; C). Accumulation of solar energy in photosynthesis;
D). Increase in species diversity of wildlife; E). Accumulation in the bodies of organisms of the atoms of substances which are scattered in nature.
28. Environment-forming function of living matter of the biosphere is to: A). Ozone depletion;
B). Formation and acid precipitation; C). Transformation of physico-chemical parameters of the environment; D). Ensuring the processes of desertification;
E). Destruction 29. Functional classification of ecosystems based on: A). Type of vegetation;
B). Zoogeographic zoning; C). Differentiation of the Earth's surface in natural areas;
D). Diversity of climate; E). Depending on the source, quantity and quality of the incoming energy 30. As a result of environment-forming functions of the living matter of the biosphere in the Earth's geographical sphere was an important event: A). Changed the chemical composition of the primary water of the ocean and atmosphere; B). Increased flow of solar energy; C). Increase in the number of volcanoes; D). Decreased the equatorial radius of the Earth; E). Increased area of the oceans. 31. Chemical compounds that can cause malignant and benign tumors in the body, called the ... A) Toxigenic;
E) kontserogenami 32. World population in 2005 was ... A) 3 mlrd.chel. ;
B) 4 billion people. ;
C) 6,5 billion. ;
D) 5,5 billion people
E) 6.mlrd. people .. 33. At the heart of environmental management and environmental protection are issues such as economic, health, aesthetic, educational and ... A) Research;
E) Classic 34. Use and protection of natural resources should be based on anticipation and prevention as possible negative effects of nature - this is called the rule ... A) Conservation priority over its use;
B) Enhance the use;
E) Localization 35. Increase or decrease the use of a resource increases or reduce the use of another resource - it's a combination interests of economic entities. A) neutral;
D) mutually beneficial.
E) unfavorable 36. The elements of nature, necessary for a man of his livelihood and becoming involved in material production, they are called ... A) Natural resources;
B) natural conditions;
C) The natural environment;
D) Consumer goods.
E) Environments 37. What natural resources are coal, oil and most of the other minerals? A) exhaustible nonrenewable;
B) exhaustible renewable; C) inexhaustible.
E) non-renewable 38. Human activities are aimed at restoring the natural environment disturbed by human activities or natural processes, is ... action. A) design;
E) energy 39. Geochemical processes caused by mining, technology, engineering and construction and agricultural activities of man, said ... A) noogenesis;
E) demographics 40. Ecological trouble, which is characterized by deep irreversible environmental changes and a significant deterioration in health, is called ... A) environmental risk;
B) the environmental crisis; C) an ecological catastrophe.