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Topic 114: It is argued that university students should study a full range of subjects, instead of some specific subjects. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Since the second half of the last century, there has been a switch from the traditional manufacturing economy to a knowledge economy. Much of the world has placed a premium on the knowledge and skills one can obtain from higher education. Some academics suggest that university students should widen their study from a limited range of subject orientation to a high complexity of subjects. This proposed change merits serious consideration.

From a social aspect, current employers show a tendency to recruit youngsters who can do a various array of jobs within a single position rather than job specialists. A clerk working for a bank, for example, is required to possess a collection of skills, ranging from those learnt in the field of finance, accounting and economy to those in other relevant subjects, such as management, communication and sociology. As the job market is becoming increasingly competitive, students who dabble in different specialised areas and have experience in interdisciplinary study are expected to be in a preponderant position.

From students' perspective, learning different subjects can be both personally fulfilling and skill-enhancing. Many students tend to perceive it as unwieldy when studying several subjects they have no experience in. This challenge, if overcame, leaves individuals more room for skill enhancement. For example, extra learning requires students to take in essential information within a time frame. In coping with this task, students have to develop outstanding time management skills and show expertise in juggling different jobs at a time. With know-how, they are more adjustable in this fast-changing social setting.

According to the above advantages, learning different subjects does good to university students. Not only does it make students time-conscious and versatile, but also helps students to match the needs of a fast-changing and competitive society.

1. place a premium on

2. merit consideration = deserve consideration

3. preponderant = advantageous

4. fulfilling = rewarding = pleasing = satisfying

5. unwieldy = unmanageable

6. take in = absorb = assimilate

7. juggle = fit in = manage = organise = cope with = deal with

8. know-how = knowledge = area of knowledge = area of study

9. adjustable = flexible = adaptable

10. versatile = multitalented = all-round


1. Abandon + attempt, career, child, convention, effort, homestead, hope, idea, pet, policy, principle, proposal, rationality, search, tradition, vehicle, wife

2. Absorb + culture, idea, information

3. Abuse + alcohol, authority, drug, power, substance

4. Accelerate + change, development, growth, pace, rate, speed, trend

5. Achieve + aim, effect, feat, goal, growth, objective, purpose, success, target

6. Acquire + information, knowledge, opportunity, skill, status

7. Address + issue, matter, problem, question, subject

8. Admire + courage, quality, skill, view, work

9. Adopt + attitude, idea, measure, method, plan, policy, practice, rule, technique

10. Affect + behaviour, decision, life, outcome, performance, quality

11. Allocate + expenditure, fund, money, seat, time, work

12. Alter + behaviour, fact, life, perception, policy, relationship

13. Analyse + behaviour, impact, performance, problem, result

14. Appreciate + beauty, effort, point, support, value, work

15. Attain + degree, goal, objective, position, status, target

16. Attract + attention, audience, criticism, effort, interest, investment, support

17. Ban + advertising, book, drug, practice, weapon

18. Bear + burden, cost, fruit, grudge, hallmark, resemblance, responsibility, similarity

19. Boost + confidence, economy, image, income, morale, performance, profit, value

20. Break + contract, deadlock, habit, law, promise, record, rule, silence, tradition

21. Cancel + agreement, appointment, booking, holiday, meeting, trip, visit

22. Catch + attention, breath, bus, cold, disease, eye, fire, flight, glimpse, plane, train

23. Cause + accident, change, concern, damage, difficulty, harm, loss, pain, problem, trouble

24. Celebrate + achievement, anniversary, birthday, centenary, day, event, festival, holiday, occasion, success, victory, wedding, year

25. Challenge + authority, claim, decision, idea, notion, view

26. Change + attitude, behaviour, direction, face, habit, mind, situation, subject

27. Collect + data, evidence, information, rent, tax, thought

28. Combat + crime, crisis, disease, drug, inflation, problem, tragedy, terrorism, violence

29. Concentrate + effort, attention, energy, mind, power

30. Conduct +analysis, business, debate, examination, experiment, inquiry, interview, investigation, meeting, negotiation, orchestra, research, study, survey, test, trial

31. Confirm +appointment, booking, existence, view

32. Confront +challenge, difficulty, fact, issue, problem, reality, situation

33. Consume +alcohol, energy, passion, time

34. Control +behaviour, money, population, power, supply, temper

35. Convey +idea, image, information, language, meaning, message, view

36. Create +atmosphere, environment, image, impression, opportunity, wealth

37. Curb +attempt, effort, emission, growth

38. Cut +budget, cost, hair, job, loss, pay, price, rate, supply, tax

39. Damage +brain, career, credibility, economy, environment, health, image, relationship, reputation

40. Debate +issue, matter, merit, policy, proposal, subject

41. Delay +action, arrival, decision, departure, development, flight, onset

42. Deliver +goods, lecture, message, performance, service, speech

43. Demonstrate +ability, commitment, importance, need, power, skill

44. Deny +access, chance, claim, existence, involvement, opportunity, request, right

45. Deserve +chance, consideration, mention, place, praise, punishment, respect, support, win

46. Destroy +ability, bond, building, ecosystem, forest, hope, industry, life, prospect

47. Determine +amount, extent, nature, outcome, policy, price, rate, value

48. Develop +habit, idea, knowledge, plan, policy, skill, taste, technology

49. Discuss +idea, issue, matter, possibility, problem, situation, subject, topic

50. Dismiss +appeal, application, argument, charge, claim, employee, idea, notion, possibility, reason, suggestion

51. Display +collection, information, skill, talent

52. Disregard +advice, pain, statement, suffering, warning

53. Disrupt +activity, attempt, life, meeting, operation, peace, plan, process, service

54. Distract +attention, mind, thought

55. Distribute +goods, information, material, power, product

56. Earn +credit, degree, income, salary, wage, money, livelihood, place, praise, profit, reputation, respect, return

57. Ease +burden, crisis, difficulty, fear, grip, mind, pain, plight, pressure, problem, restriction, shortage, strain, tension, worry

58. Eliminate +discrimination, gap, habit, need, pest, possibility, problem, risk, use

59. Emphasise +contribution, fact, importance, point, role

60. Employ +method, people, staff, strategy, system, tactic, technique, worker

61. Encounter +difficulty, opposition, problem, resistance, situation

62. Enforce +ban, control, law, limit, requirement, rule, standard

63. Enhance +ability, appearance, chance, environment, image, performance, prestige, quality, relationship, role, skill, status, value

64. Enrich +experience, performance, relationship, life

65. Establish +business, creditability, link, network, relationship, reputation, rule

66. Examine +effect, evidence, implication, issue, nature, policy, problem, progress

67. Exercise +authority, care, choice, control, discretion, influence, judgement, option, power, responsibility, restraint, right, skill

68. Exhibit +behaviour, characteristic, degree, level, pattern, property, range, sign, symptom, tendency, variety, work

69. Expand +activity, base, business, capacity, horizon, operation, range, scope

70. Exploit +advantage, loophole, market, opportunity, position, possibility, potential, power, situation, technology, weakness

71. Explore +area, detail, idea, issue, nature, opportunity, option, possibility, potential, relationship, world

72. Express +anger, appreciation, belief, concern, disappointment, doubt, emotion, fear, gratitude, interest, opinion, preference, regret, satisfaction, support, sympathy, thanks, thought, view, wish

73. Extend +credit, hand, invitation, lead, life, period, plan, system

74. Evaluate +evidence, impact, option, performance, policy, position, quality, work

75. Facilitate +change, communication, development, exchange, flow, learning, transfer

76. Follow +advice, example, footstep, guideline, instruction, lead, path, pattern, procedure, route, rule, track

77. Form +basis, company, government, partnership, relationship, society

78. Forge +bond, career, friendship, identity, link, partnership, relationship, signature

79. Foster +attitude, competition, culture, development, discrimination, relationship, spirit

80. Fulfil +aim, ambition, criteria, demand, desire, dream, expectation, need, obligation, potential, requirement, responsibility, role, task

81. Gain +acceptance, access, advantage, approval, attention, benefit, confidence, control, currency, degree, experience, ground, impression, independence, information, insight, knowledge, momentum, opportunity, popularity, power, qualification, recognition, reputation, respect, support, understanding

82. Gather +crowd, evidence, information, momentum, pace, people

83. Generate +cash, demand, electricity, energy, growth, heat, income, interest, job, power, profit, revenue, support

84. Guarantee +freedom, future, payment, quality, safety, security, success

85. Hamper +ability, effort, plan, search, development

86. Handle +affair, business, crisis, issue, matter, problem, situation

87. Harness +energy, investment, power, revolution, technology

88. Hold +belief, breath, election, exhibition, hope, meeting, position, post, seat, view

89. Ignore +advice, evidence, fact, issue, need, problem, protest, question, sign, warning

90. Imitate +accent, attitude, custom, sound, style, voice

91. Impair +ability, efficiency, function, health, performance

92. Implement +ban, change, contract, decision, law, plan, policy, practice, principle, recommendation, reform, strategy, tax

93. Impose +ban, burden, constraint, control, deadline, duty, fine, law, limit, punishment, requirement, restraint, restriction, rule, sentence, tax

94. Improve +appearance, chance, education, efficiency, effort, environment, facility, health, image, life, performance, productivity, quality, safety, service, situation, skill, standard, system

95. Increase +amount, capacity, chance, demand, productivity, profit, rate, risk, sale, share, tax

96. Initiate +action, campaign, change, contact, debate, development, discussion, investigation, policy, programme, reform, request, research, review, study, talk

97. Integrate +approach, policy, service, technology

98. Lay +base, emphasis, figure, foundation, groundwork, hand, stress

99. Limit +ability, access, choice, growth, unemployment, use

100. Lose +altitude, appetite, balance, chance, confidence, grip, hearing, home, hope, interest, job, memory, mind, money, opportunity, sense, sight, speed, temper, voice

101. Maintain +balance, contact, control, environment, interest, momentum, position, quality, relationship, standard, status, tradition

102. Make +arrangement, attempt, call, change, choice, comment, contribution, decision, difference, distinction, effort, mistake, money, noise, progress, speech, statement, trip

103. Match +description, expectation, need, pace, performance

104. Meet +challenge , criteria, deadline, demand, friend, goal, need, objective, obligation, requirement, standard, target

105. Merit +attention, consideration, mention

106. Nurture +child, hatred, ideal, relationship, talent

107. Obey +command, instruction, law, obligation, order, parent, rule

108. Obtain +advice, benefit, consent, degree, detail, evidence, information, permission, result, service, solution

109. Offer +advice, assistance, chance, choice, discount, explanation, help, job, money, opportunity, resistance, service, support

110. Offset +advantage, benefit, cost, decline, demand, effect, gain, growth, impact, increase, loss, problem, profit, reduction, revenue, sale, tax

111. Oppose+ change, idea, law, move, plan, policy, proposal, view

112. Overcome+ barrier, challenge, crisis, difficulty, fear, hurdle, limitation, obstacle, odds, opposition, prejudice, problem, resistance, shyness

113. Overtook+ achievement, fact, factor, importance, link, need, point, premise, self-esteem

114. Perform + ceremony, dance, duty, experiment, function, job, operation, play, procedure, rite, ritual, role, service, task, test, work

115. Place + advertisement, bet, blame, burden, emphasis, importance, limit, order, restriction, strain, trust, value

116. Play + card, football, game, golf, match, music, part, piano, role, rule, toy

117. Pose + challenge, danger, dilemma, hazard, problem, question, risk, threat

118. Possess + ability, characteristic, knowledge, power, quality, skill, strength, wealth

119. Predict + behaviour, change, future, growth, market, outcome, result, success

120. Preserve + balance, character, effort, environment, family, heritage, identity, independence, integrity, life, tradition, unity, value

121. Prohibit + act, activity, discrimination, drinking, gambling, smoking, substance, abuse, use

122. Promote + change, development, education, effort, growth, health, idea, policy, welfare

123. Protect + children, copyright, environment, law, privacy, property, public, right, species

124. Provide + answer, assistance, basis, care, clue, detail, evidence, example, explanation, help, incentive, information, insight, opportunity, protection, service, support

125. Provoke + action, anger, backlash, controversy, criticism, debate, discussion, interest, opposition, outcry, protest, reaction, response, thought, violence, war

126. Pursue + aim, argument, career, end, goal, idea, interest, issue, matter, objective, question, study

127. Raise + awareness, child, concern, doubt, family, flag, fund, hand, head, hope, issue, matter, money, possibility, price, problem, question, rate, standard, subject, tax, voice

128. Reach + adolescence, age, agreement, compromise, conclusion, consensus, decision, end, final, goal, level, limit, peak, point, stage, standard, target

129. Receive + approval, attention, benefit, call, education, gift, information, invitation, letter, message, payment, publicity, reply, support, treatment

130. Recognise + benefit, fact, flaw, importance, need, problem, right, role, value, voice

131. Reduce+ budget, chance, cost, debt, demand, effort, emission, need, pollution, risk, tax, tension, value

132. Reform + character, criminal, economy, law, plan, regulation, system

133. Reject + appeal, application, argument, bid, claim, idea, notion, offer, plan, proposal, request, suggestion, view

134. Relieve + anxiety, boredom, burden, duty, monotony, pain, poverty, pressure, problem, responsibility, stress, symptom, tedium, tension

135. Remove + barrier, obstacle, restriction, rule, stain

136. Repair + belief, car, damage, dwelling, injury, make-up

137. Repeat + behaviour, habit, history, mistake, pattern, procedure, question, success

138. Replace + battery, car, staff, system, tyre

139. Resist + change, idea, impulse, pressure, temptation, urge, will

140. Resolve + ambiguity, conflict, contradiction, crisis, difference, difficulty-, dilemma, dispute, issue, matter, problem, question, situation, tension

141. Respect + decision, law, privacy, view, wish

142. Restore + balance, building, confidence, control, faith, glory, health, life, order, peace, position, power, pride, reputation, sight

143. Retain + atmosphere, character, control, dignity, employee, grip, identity, independence, interest, position, post, power, right, status, title

144. Reverse + change, decision, decline, direction, order, policy, role, situation, trend

145. Review + decision, evidence, option, policy, progress, situation, study, work

146. Satisfy + appetite, condition, criteria, curiosity, customer, demand, desire, hunger, need, requirement, taste, test

147. Set + agenda, date, example, fire, goal, limit, objective, pace, precedent, price, record, scene, sight, stage, standard, target, task, tone

148. Share + belief, blame, concern, experience, house, idea, information, interest, life, responsibility, room, sense, view

149. Shift + attention, balance, blame, burden, demand, emphasis, focus, gear, ground, position, power, responsibility

150. Solve + crime, crisis, difficulty, issue, problem, puzzle, question, riddle

151. Spend + afternoon, amount, day, evening, fortune, hour, life, money, month, morning, night, time, week, weekend, year

152. Spoil + appetite, chance, child, choice, day, fun, view

153. Stimulate + ability, activity, brain, demand, development, economy, growth, hormone, industry, interest, investment, research

154. Strengthen + ability, argument, bond, commitment, control, effort, family, force, law, link, muscle, position, power, presence, relationship, role, squad, tie

155. Supply + electricity, energy, equipment, food, gas, goods, information, material, power, product, service, water

156. Support + claim, effort, family, hypothesis, idea, plan, proposal, view

157. Suppress + anger, attempt, drug, effort, emotion, evidence, rebellion, smile, truth, uprising, urge

158. Suspend + action, decision, duty, flight, licence, operation, order, payment, sentence

159. Sustain + ability, conscience, damage, effort, growth, interest, level, life, population

160. Take + action, approach, breath, chance, job, lead, opportunity, photograph, responsibility, risk, role, step, turn, view

161. Teach + child, class, course, language, lesson, skill, student, subject, technique

162. Transfer + benefit, data, fund, information, ownership, responsibility

163. Transform + city, country, economy, face, image, landscape, life, opinion, situation

164. Trigger + action, change, debate, event, problem, reaction, response, war

165. Understand + idea, meaning, nature, need, problem, process, reason

166. Undergo + change, course, development, examination, experience, operation, period. procedure, process, revolution, surgery, test, training, transformation, treatment, trial

167. Undertake + action, analysis, development, duty, exercise, initiative, investigation, operation, programme, project, research, responsibility, study, survey, task, training

168. Utilise + assistance, power, resource, service, talent, time

169. Win + battle, championship, competition, contest, contract, heart, majority, match, prize, race, scholarship, support, title, tournament

170. Withdraw +candidacy, cash, decision, money, service, support


1. Abstract + art, concept, idea, painting, principle, theory, thought, work

2. Abundant + evidence, flower, supply, wildlife

3. Accurate + description, information, method, prediction, representation

4. Active +involvement, life, member, part, participant, participation, role, support

5. Adequate +income, information, preparation, protection, supply, support, time, training

6. Adverse +circumstance, consequence, effect, event, impact, reaction, weather

7. Aggressive +action, approach, behaviour, campaign, child, expansion, growth, stance, tendency

8. Alternative + approach, arrangement, energy, explanation, lifestyle, manner, method, route, scorn, solution, suggestion, therapy, treatment, view, voice

9. Ample +evidence, justification, room, scope, space, supply, time

10. Apparent +attempt, change, discomfort, evidence, failure, fear, harm, reason, success, winner

11. Appropriate +action, advice, behaviour, gift, level, measure, place, response, time

12. Basic +concept, idea, information, necessity, need, requirement, salary, skill

13. Broad +base, category, consensus, context, definition, field, framework, issue, outline, perspective, policy, question, range, sense, view

14. Classic + book, clothing, example, film, statement, symptom, work

15. Classical +architecture, art, ballet, dance, economist, education, liberal, literature, model, music, study, style, times, work, world, writer

16. Comfortable +bed, chair, clothes, home, hotel, lead, life, lifestyle, lounge, place, position, restaurant, retirement, room, victory, win

17. Complex +issue, problem, process, relationship, structure, system

18. Complicated +case, matter, process, relationship, structure, system

19. Considerable +advantage, amount, attention, effort, experience, improvement, influence, pressure, progress

20. Contemporary +art, artist, culture, dance, history, issue, music, society, world, writer

21. Controversial +book, broadcast, circumstance, issue, matter, policy, subject, topic

22. Conventional +approach, means, medicine, method, treatment, view

23. Core +activity, belief, business, curriculum, operation, skill, subject, value

24. Creative +act, activity, approach, artist, energy, expression, flair, force, genius, group, idea, imagination, inspiration, mind, people, power, process, solution, talent, thought, use, way, work, writer, writing

25. Criminal + act, action, activity, behaviour, gang, history, investigation, liability, matter, offence, penalty, record, tendency

26. Crucial + area, aspect, decision, element, factor, importance, issue, moment, point, role, stage, step

27. Cultural + activity, background, context, development, difference, diversity, event, exchange, factor, heritage, history, identity, influence, norm, practice, tradition, value

28. Current + affair, issue, news story, operation, policy, practice, resident, trend, year

29. Daily + activity, basis, business, contact, diet, intake, life, routine, task, work

30. Dangerous + chemical, driving, drug, level, situation, substance

31. Deadly +disease, poison, sin, virus, weapon

32. Detailed +analysis, consideration, description, discussion, explanation, instruction, knowledge, picture, plan, report, research, study, work

33. Difficult +choice, decision, occasion, position, problem, question, situation, task, time

34. Disadvantaged + area, background, child, group, people, position, student, youth

35. Distinct +advantage, contrast, drawback, element, evidence, flavour, individual, feeling, impression, improvement, lack, sign, stage, voice

36. Distinctive + character, characteristic, contribution, feature, flavour, quality, sound, style, voice, way

37. Diverse +background, community, culture, need, population, society, source

38. Domestic +affair, animal, chore, economy, industry, market, task, use, violence, work

39. Dominant +class, culture, factor, feature, idea, ideology, issue, player, role, theme

40. Dramatic +change, decline, drop, event, fall, growth, improvement, increase, reduction, reversal, rise, shift, turn

41. Dynamic + aspect, element, environment, leadership, nature, people, relationship

42. Economic + activity, aid, benefit, boom, climate, collapse, crisis, decline, depression, development, downturn, environment, factor, growth, history, impact, incentive, issue, life, miracle, performance, policy, power, problem, progress, prosperity, recession, recovery, reform, situation, strategy, tie, trend

43. Effective + action, communication, control, deterrent, interaction, management, means, method, solution, treatment, use, way

44. Efficient + management, manner, method, service, solution, use, way

45. Emotional + abuse, attachment, development, distress, disturbance, impact, life, maturity, need, outburst, pain, power, problem, state, stress, support, trauma

46. Empty + bottle, glass, hand, house, lot, place, plate, promise, road, room, seat, space, stomach, street, word

47. Enormous + advantage, amount, change, cost, difference, difficulty, effort, growth, impact, importance, influence, interest, popularity, potential, pressure, variety

48. Environmental + activist, awareness, benefit, catastrophe, change, concern, consequence, consideration, control, cost, damage, degradation, destruction, disaster, factor, impact, improvement, issue, law, management, matter, performance, policy, pollution, pressure, problem, project, protection, quality, regulation, standard, study

49. Essential +characteristic, component, element, feature, part, point, role, service, tool

50. Ethical + code, concern, consideration, dilemma, implication, issue, lapse, principle, problem, question, reason, standard, value

51. Ethnic +background, community, conflict, difference, diversity, division, group, identity, minority, origin, tension, violence

52. Experienced +people, player, practitioner, professional, staff, teacher, worker, user

53. Extensive +collection, coverage, damage, discussion, experience, knowledge, research, review, study, survey, use

54. External +affair, agency, appearance, constraint, environment, factor, force, influence, pressure, reality, source, stimulus, threat, use, world

55. Extraordinary +ability, achievement, amount, circumstance, degree, man, number, power, story, success, woman

56. False +assumption, belief, claim, hair, information, modesty, name, promise, representation, statement, tooth

57. Fashionable +area, bar, cafe, clothes, event, resort, restaurant, store, trend, woman

58. Fast +buck, development, food, friend, growth, lane, pace, rate, road, track

59. Favourable +attitude, circumstance, climate, comment, impression, outcome, position, response, time

60. Favourite +colour, food, music, pastime, place, restaurant, song, story, subject, theme

61. Final +analysis, approval, decision, draft, exam, outcome, phase, product, report, result, round, say, score, section, stage, version, word, year

62. Flexible +approach, labour, response, schedule, system, work, workforce

63. Fresh +air, approach, breeze, evidence, face, flower, food, fruit, idea, look, meat, water

64. Functional +ability, area, aspect, form, importance, language, significance

65. Fundamental +aspect, assumption, cause, change, component, conflict, difference, distinction, error, flaw, importance, issue, mistake, point, principle, problem, question, reason, right, shift, tenet, value

66. Genetic + change, defect, disease, disorder, engineering, factor, inheritance, makeup, marker, mutation, predisposition, relationship, trait, variation

67. Genuine + attempt, concern, desire, effort, experience, grievance, interest, sense

68. Global +climate, competition, economy, environment, market, perspective, population, trade, village, warming

69. Healthy +appetite, body, diet, eating, economy, environment, food, lifestyle, profit

70. Immense +amount, benefit, difficulty, effort, importance, popularity, power, pressure, pride, relief, satisfaction, value, variety, wealth

71. Important +aspect, component, difference, element, factor, feature, issue, matter, point, question, role, source

72. Inborn +appreciation, factor, fear, knack, reflex, talent, temperament

73. Indigenous +community, culture, group, inhabitant, language, people, population

74. Innovative +approach, device, idea, look method, pioneer, product, project, solution, suggestion, technique, technology, thinker, way, work

75. Intense +activity, competition, debate, interest, opposition, pain, pressure, rivalry

76. Intensive +agriculture, care, course, farming, programme, research, study, training, treatment, use, work

77. International +affair, aid, airport, business, competition, market, pressure, recognition, reputation, scale, stage, standard, trade

78. Light +entertainment, industry, lunch, rail, work

79. Likely +candidate, cause, consequence, effect, explanation, outcome

80. Living +accommodation, cost, creature, expense, memory, organism, standard, wage

81. Local +area, authority, community, government, history, newspaper, people, resident

82. Manual +dexterity, job, labour, labourer, occupation, skill, work, worker

83. Medical +advice, care, centre, condition, cost, equipment, examination, expense, expert, facility, history, insurance, personnel, practitioner, profession, record, report, research, school, science, treatment

84. Modern +age, architecture, art, culture, dance, era, man, obsession, people, perspective, phenomenon, society, technology, time, version, woman, world

85. Moral +code, dilemma, duty, education, ground, imperative, issue, obligation, principle, problem, responsibility, standard, support, value

86. Native +culture, inhabitant, language, people, population, speaker, species, tongue

87. Negative +ad, answer, aspect, attitude, comment, consequence, correlation, effect, emotion, feedback, image, impact, publicity, reaction, response, result, side, thought, value, view

88. Notable +ability, achievement, change, example, exception, failure, feature, success

89. Normal +child, circumstance, development, family, form, genre, habit, level, life, people, practice, procedure, range, reaction, situation, subject, way

90. Ongoing +battle, business, concern, control, debate, expectation, problem, process

91. Original +design, form, idea, intention, plan, position, proposal, purpose, version, work

92. Outdated +attitude, convention, equipment, idea, method, norm, regulation, style, system, textbook

93. Overall +budget, control, effect, impact, impression, performance, quality, result, view

94. Overt +appeal, attempt, concern, discrimination, hostility, issue, racism

95. Parental +attitude, authority, care, duty, guidance, involvement, love, responsibility, role, support

96. Passive +acceptance, audience, consumer, recipient, resistance, role, smoking

97. Permanent +basis, change, damage, employment, feature, job, memorial, resident

98. Personal +assistant, belonging, care, choice, contact, detail, development, experience, freedom, growth, hygiene, income, information, interest, knowledge, life, matter, opinion, possession, preference, problem, property, reason, relationship, responsibility, statement, taste, use, view

99. Physical +abuse, activity, appearance, characteristic, condition, contact, disability, education, environment, evidence, examination, fitness, harm, health, injury, need, pain, presence, problem, reality, strength, symptom, violence, world

100. Pleasant +atmosphere, change, childhood, drive, environment, evening, experience, holiday, meal, memory, place, smile, surprise, surrounding, voice, way

101. Political +action, arena, asylum, career, climate, context, elite, group, implication, issue, leader, life, opponent, party, power, pressure, reason, reform, situation

102. Positive +approach, aspect, attitude, change, contribution, effect, experience, feedback, image, impact, influence, outcome, reaction, relationship, response, role, sign, value, view, way

103. Potential +benefit, buyer, client, conflict, customer, danger, impact, investor, market, problem, purchaser, risk, source, threat, user, value

104. Profound +change, consequence, effect, impact, implication, importance, influence, shift, transformation, understanding

105. Prospective +buyer, candidate, client, companion, customer, donor, employee, employer, homeowner, investor, member, parent, partner, purchaser, student, tenant

106. Practical +advice, application, approach, aspect, consequence, consideration, difficulty, effect, experience, help, implication, importance, information, issue, joke, knowledge, matter, necessity, problem, purpose, reality, reason, skill, solution, support, training, use, value, way, work

107. Professional +advice, career, competence, conduct, development, education, job, judgement, life, practice, qualification, responsibility, service, skill, standard, training

108. Psychological +advantage, barrier, damage, disorder, distress, effect, factor, harm, impact, need, problem, state, stress, support

109. Profitable +business, company, market, product, use, year

110. Public +access, attention, building, concern, debate, education, enterprise, eye, fund, health, holiday, image, interest, money, perception, policy, pressure, sector, servant, service, spending, transport

111. Quick +action, buck, decision, learner, reaction, response, sale, succession, wit, word

112. Rapid +change, decline, development, expansion, growth, improvement, increase, pace, rate, reaction, response, rise, spread, transit

113. Rare +animal, book, case, event, example, exception, instance, moment, occasion, occurrence, opportunity, sight, species

114. Regular +basis, check, customer, exercise, interval, job, service, use, visitor, work

115. Relevant +data, document, experience, fact, factor, information, material, qualification

116. Reliable +data, estimate, evidence, guide, indicator, information, means, measure, method, result, source, way

117. Remarkable +achievement, change, coincidence, discovery, effect, fact, feat, feature, humour, improvement, man, performance, similarity, success, tolerance, woman

118. Reverse +direction, effect, order, process, situation

119. Rural +area, community, development, district, economy, environment, landscape, people, population, society

120. Serious +accident, attempt, attention, blow, business, challenge, concern, consequence, consideration, crime, damage, danger, doubt, effect, error, flaw, harm, illness, injury, issue, matter, offence, problem, question, risk, thought, threat, trouble

121. Social +background, behaviour, benefit, change, class, contact context, development, event, group, interaction, issue, justice, life, order, policy, problem, relationship, responsibility, skill, status, welfare

122. Sound +advice, investment, judgement, policy, principle, reason

123. Special +arrangement, attention, bond, care, case, circumstance, education, event, interest, need, occasion, offer, privilege, relationship, skill, story, training, treatment

124. Steady +boyfriend, decline, diet, flow, growth, improvement, income, increase, job, pace, progress, relationship, rhythm, rise, supply

125. Strict +adherence, control, criteria, deadline, discipline, enforcement, guideline, hierarchy, law, limit, regulation, requirement, restriction, rule, scrutiny, security, sense

126. Stressful +activity, circumstance, event, occupation, situation, tour

127. Strong +argument, commitment, criticism, demand, desire, evidence, feeling, growth, hand, influence, opinion, opposition, point, position, relationship, sense, support, supporter, lie, tradition, view

128. Substantial +amount, change, contribution, difference, evidence, improvement, increase, investment, loss, number, portion, profit, progress, proportion, sum, support

129. Sufficient +competence, condition, data, detail, evidence, fund, information, interest, money, protection, quantity, reason, resource, support, lime, understanding

130. Suitable +accommodation, candidate, experience, job, material, place, school, site

131. Temporary +accommodation, basis, job, loss, measure, phenomenon, problem, replacement, residence, sanctuary, setback, shelter, solution, source, staff, worker

132. Theoretical +account, analysis, approach, argument, aspect, assumption, background base, basis, concept, consideration, debate, development, discussion, explanation, foundation, framework, ground, idea, interest, issue, knowledge, perspective, problem, standpoint, study, understanding, value, work

133. Tight +budget, control, deadline, grip, hold, rein, restriction, schedule, security

134. Timely +fashion, information, manner, payment, reminder

135. Traditional +approach, family, medicine, method, role, society, style, value, view, way

136. Tremendous +achievement, advantage, challenge, change, difference, effort, energy, enthusiasm, growth, help, impact, influence, loss, opportunity, potential, power, pressure, progress, response, sense, success, support, value

137. Typical +day, diet, example, expression, remark, sign, weather

138. Underlying +aim, assumption, attitude, cause, concept, idea, issue, meaning, philosophy, principle, problem, reason, theme, trend, value

139. Urban +area, community, design, development, dweller, environment, growth, landscape, life, population, problem, regeneration, renewal, school, sprawl

140. Urgent +action, attention, call, case, consideration, demand, desire, matter, measure, meeting, message, need, priority, problem, request, task, voice

141. Useful +advice, function, information, life, purpose, source, tip, tool, way

142. Valid +argument, claim, conclusion, criticism, excuse, point, reason, signature

143. Violent +action, act, behaviour, conduct, crime, film, image, reaction

144. Visible +change, clue, damage, difference, evidence, flaw, object, restraint, sign, step, symptom, weariness

145. Visual +acuity, aid, appeal, art, contact, effect, impairment

146. Western +art, country, culture, democracy, hemisphere, medicine, society, world

147. Wide +appeal, audience, context, gap, implication, range, spectrum, variety

148. Weak +demand, economy, link, point

149. Young +age, child, couple, generation, offender, people

150. Youthful +appearance, energy, enthusiasm, face, look, vigour, worker


1. Ability +athletic, artistic, exceptional, intellectual, musical, natural

2. Access +direct, easy, equal, free, immediate, public, unlimited, unrestricted

3. Act + criminal, illegal, legal, symbolic, unlawful, violent

4. Action +affirmative, appropriate, corrective, decisive, direct, further, immediate, industrial, legal, military, political, positive, responsible, tough, urgent

5. Advantage +competitive, considerable, distinct, important, main, major, obvious

6. Advice +expert, financial, free, further, general, helpful, impartial, legal, medical, practical, professional, sound, specialist, useful

7. Aim + broad, general, main, overall, political, primary, principal, stated, ultimate

8. Animal + domestic, endangered, live, rare, threatened, wild

9. Argument +cogent, convincing, strong, opposite, persuasive, powerful

10. Art +contemporary, fine, great, modern, visual

11. Atmosphere +calm, casual, competitive, cultural, dreadful, easy-going, friendly, hostile, humid, intimidating, male-dominated, peaceful, political, relaxed, tense, warm

12. Attention +considerable, full, little, national, public, scant, serious, special

13. Attitude + different, general, hostile, negative, positive, public, social

14. Behaviour +abnormal, acceptable, aggressive, amateurish, criminal, disgraceful, general, good, immature, individual, learned, social, understandable, usual, violent

15. Belief + basic, false, firm, general, mistaken, personal, popular, religious, strong, traditional, true, widespread

16. Benefit +economic, financial, mutual, potential, social, tangible

17. Burden +additional, administrative, economic, extra, financial, heavy, intolerable, undue

18. Care + extra, intensive, medical, nursing, personal, primary, private, reasonable, special

19. Cause + important, likely, main, major, noble, possible, real, reasonable, underlying, worthy

20. Characteristic + defining, demographic, distinctive, distinguishing, essential, general, important, individual, main, particular, personal, physical, social, special, unique

21. Child +eldest, grown-up, old, only, small, young, youngest

22. Circumstance + certain, different, difficult, economic, exceptional, extreme, financial, normal, particular, political, present, social, special, unforeseen

23. Climate +changing, cold, cultural, current, dry, economic, favourable, global, harsh, hostile, hot, humid, international, mild, moral, political, present, temperate, warm

24. Clothing +classic, outdoor, protective, second-hand, special, warm, unique

25. Clothes + casual, civilian, clean, damp, dirty, dry, elegant, expensive, innovative, new, old, plain, special, travelling

26. Communication + direct, effective, electronic, global, mass, non-verbal, open, personal, verbal

27. Concern + central, chief, deep, environmental, genuine, grave, growing, immediate, main, major, particular, political, primary, public, real, serious, social

28. Condition + adverse, critical, economic, environmental, excellent, extreme, favourable, good, harsh, living, medical, mental, necessary, normal, physical, poor, social, working

29. Contact + close, daily, direct, frequent, initial, personal, physical, regular, social

30. Context + broad, cultural, different, general, historical, particular, political, present, social, specific, wide

31. Country + developed, developing, different, foreign, industrial, poor, rich, western

32. Cost + additional, administrative, environmental, extra, high, legal, low, rising, running, social, total

33. Crime + juvenile, organised, petty, serious, soft, tough, violent

34. Criminal +convicted, dangerous, habitual, hardened, petty, violent, young

35. Culture + corporate, dominant, national, traditional, popular, volunteer, western

36. Debate + considerable, current, fierce, heated, intense, lively, ongoing, public, recent

37. Demand + aggregate, domestic, great, growing, heavy, high, huge, increased, strong

38. Development +early, economic, further, future, industrial, intellectual, joint, personal, professional, rapid, recent, social, sustainable, urban

39. Diet + balanced, daily, elemental, free, healthy, normal, poor, strict, varied, vegetarian

40. Disease +active, chronic, contagious, deadly, fatal, incurable, infectious, serious

41. Education + adult, bilingual, compulsory, elementary, formal, further, high, primary, private, public, secondary, special, vocational

42. Effort + astonishing, concerted, conscious, considerable, desperate, determined, enormous, extensive, fruitless, good, great, joint, strenuous, tremendous, vigorous

43. Element + basic, crucial, essential, important, key, main, major, strong, various, vital

44. Environment +competitive, cultural, current, economic, external, hostile, interactive, legal, natural, physical, pleasant, political, regulatory, social, stable, threatened, urban, wild

45. Event + annual, cultural, exciting, important, political, social, splendid, sporting

46. Evidence + ample, available, clear, conclusive, direct, empirical, experimental, hard, historical, scientific, strong, sufficient

47. Example +classic, clear, extreme, fine, good, notable, obvious, outstanding, prime, simple, typical

48. Exercise +acrobatic, free, fruitless, gentle, light, physical, regular, strenuous, vigorous

49. Experience +bad, bitter, direct, early, emotional, life-long, necessary, painful, past, personal, practical, previous, real, religious, terrifying, traumatic, vast

50. Facility +excellent, medical, military, new, private, public, recreational, residential

51. Feature +attractive, central, distinctive, essential, important, interesting, key, main, notable, original, prominent, regular, significant, striking, unique

52. Feeling +ambivalent, bad, deep, hard, ill, negative, personal, real, strong, true

53. Force +armed, conventional, driving, military, political, potent, powerful, social

54. Group +environmental, ethnic, left-wing, political, right-wing, social

55. Growth + economic, emotional, healthy, industrial, personal, rapid, slow, steady, strong

56. Habit +accumulated, bad, clean, dressing, eating, fixed, good, old. ordinary, personal, regular, smoking, social, unconscious

57. Health +environmental, good, ill, mental, physical, poor, private, public

58. Heritage +architectural, cultural, family, industrial, musical, national, natural, rich

59. Idea +bad, basic, bright, clear, general, good, ingenious, new, original, smart, whole

60. Implication +economic, financial, important, legal, political, possible, practical, profound, serious, significant, social

61. Income +disposable, extra, gross, high, low, net, personal, private, steady, taxable

62. Industry +government-controlled, heavy, light, local, manufacturing, new, private

63. Insight +clear, deep, fresh, important, interesting, new, profound, real, valuable

64. Issue +central, complex, contentious, current, economic, environmental, ethical, important, key, latest, main, major, political, sensitive, social

65. Job +demanding, full-time, manual, odd, part-time, proper, regular, sedentary, steady, temporary

66. Knowledge + detailed, full, general, intimate, personal, public, scientific, specialist

67. Language + foreign, foul, improper, local, native, official, ordinary, second, spoken, written

68. Lifestyle +active, alternative, bizarre, comfortable, extraordinary, healthy, lavish, natural, new, outdoor, precarious, present-day, sedentary, simple, traditional

69. Mistake + big, costly, expensive, fatal, fundamental, great, honest, serious, terrible

70. Need +basic, desperate, educational, immediate, individual, particular, pressing, real, social, special, urgent

71. Objective + broad, clear, economic, environmental, key, main, major, national, overall, primary, prime, principal, stated, ultimate

72. Occasion +different, formal, odd, other, particular, rare, separate, social, special

73. Opportunity + ample, economic, educational, equal, golden, ideal, rare, unique

74. Outcome +educational, eventual, final, likely, logical, positive, possible, satisfactory, social, successful, ultimate

75. Parent +biological, elderly, foster, lone, loving, prospective, single, over-tired, working

76. People +American, British, business, disabled, elderly, like-minded, local, old, young

77. Personality + dominant, forceful, friendly, great, kind, outgoing, powerful, strong

78. Perspective +alternative, broad, different, fresh, global, historical, international, proper, social, sociological, theoretical, wide

79. Population + adult, ageing, Asian, elderly, foreign-born, general, global, homeless, indigenous, local, native, rural, teenage, urban, working

80. Problem +economic, emotional, financial, immediate, major, mental, personal, practical, serious, social, technical

81. Purpose + dual, general, main, medical, particular, practical, present, primary, sole, useful

82. Reason +apparent, good, legal, main, major, obvious, personal, possible, real, special

83. Relationship +causal, close, direct, effective, family, human, personal, reciprocal, same-sex, social, special, strong, working

84. Research + basic, further, historical, medical, recent, scientific, social

85. Resource + additional, diminishing, economic, financial, human, limited, limitless, natural, precious, renewable, scarce, valuable

86. Role + active, central, crucial, dual, important, key, leading, major, minor, new, pivotal, positive, prominent, significant, social, traditional, vital

87. School + elementary, high, junior, medical, middle, primary, private, pubic, secondary, senior, special

88. Service +basic, financial, legal, medical, military, public, social

89. Situation +current, dangerous, difficult, economic, financial, political, present, social

90. Sport +competitive, popular, professional, team

91. Society +civil, contemporary, democratic, friendly, human, industrialized, modern, traditional, western

92. Status +classic, current, economic, elevated, enhanced, equal, high, important, marital, professional, social

93. Step + big, further, important, major, necessary, positive, reasonable, small, tentative, unprecedented

94. Suggestion +extraordinary, helpful, innovative, irrational, open, practical, sensible, sound, useful

95. Support +emotional, financial, moral, mutual, political, popular, public, social, strong, technical, widespread

96. Technology + advanced, alternative, digital, high, late, medical, modern, new

97. Understanding + basic, better, clear, deep, full, general, mutual, proper, real, sufficient, thorough

98. Use + best, civilian, different, full, good, great, heavy, increasing, industrial, personal, private, recreational, regular, suitable, widespread, wrong

99. Well-being + economic, emotional, general, material, mental, personal, physical, psychological, social

100. Year + current, early, financial, fiscal, following, formative, late, past, previous, recent


Nowadays many young people get involved in criminal activity. Why is this happening? Give reasons followed by examples and suggest preventive measures to eliminate this problem.


Date: 2015-12-17; view: 1106

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Topic 112: What are the benefits of requiring young people to serve the army? Does participation in community work qualify as an alternative? | Living _________ a world _________ you.
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