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Topic 58: Many people believe that the human society has developed into a throw-away society, which is filled with plastic bags and rubbish. What are the causes and solutions?

Although waste disposal does not grab a headline as frequently as many other environmental issues do, it does not mean that it is less serious. As a matter of feet, the treatment of garbage continues to be a problem worldwide. Despite its sizable influence, many citizens have not yet realised the seriousness of this issue. It is the goal of this article to outline the potential causes of this problem and suggest possible solutions.

People should first recognise that the increment in garbage is a natural result of the social and economic development. Unethical businesses are the main creators of industrial waste, including heavy metal, chemicals, plastic, and other durable and non-recyclable materials. People's quest for a better standard of living gives them incentives to manufacture a rich variety of consumer goods and disregard the potential impact on environment. This practice can date back to the earliest days of industrial revolution, producing enormous waste that is unable to be recycled and causing an environmental disaster.

Another potential reason for the slow progress in waste treatment is people's low awareness of the opportunities to reduce, reuse and recycle waste. Many people do not have a firm stand against over-consumption and excessive production of disposable items. Besides, many citizens are not environmentally conscious, disposing of wastes whenever and wherever they consider convenient. Meanwhile, many manufacturers lend to use virgin materials, rather than recyclable materials in the course of production. That's why many communities are facing a particularly difficult position in waste treatment.

The best approach to address waste issues is simply to minimise its generation. It is primarily because the more waste people produce the more waste they have to cope with. Waste recycling offers another means, although it requires the spontaneous commitment of both businesses and citizens. Additionally, laws should beset out to regulate corporation behaviour and make their operation environmentally friendly.

It is clear that the problem of waste disposal exists due to people's ever-growing demand for manufactured goods and slow response to the impact of this problem on the environment. Tackling this problem depends not only on individual's effort to keep the waste to a minimum but also on businesses’ attempt to optimise their manufacture and reduce the inputs.

1. garbage = refuse = waste = rubbish

2. unethical = immoral

3. creator = maker

4. quest = pursuit

5. earliest days = outset = start = onset

6. recycle = reuse

7. awareness = consciousness

8. stand = stance = position

9. virgin material = raw material

10. set out = lay out-enforce

11. input = resources used

Topic 59: Food can be produced much more cheaply today because of improved fertilisers and better machinery. However, some of the methods used to do this may be dangerous to human health and may have negative effects on local communities. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Fertilisers and machinery used to be welcomed by countries worldwide as essential elements of industrialised fanning, a landmark in the history of global agriculture. However, because of being used on a large scale worldwide, they have caused heated controversy. There is ongoing debate on the possible damages of industrial farming caused to the environment and humanity. In my opinion, both are still irreplaceable, although efficient and scientific utilisation is highly recommended.

Fertilisers and machinery are both essential in increasing crop yields, a solution to starvation throughout the world. In history, manual work accounted for the majority of fanning, from sowing, irrigating to harvesting. The slow pace of human labour made it impossible to produce enough crops to toed populations. Farming is, on the other hand, exposed to the influence of many elements — weather conditions, soil compositions, pests or some unpredictable events like natural disasters. Fertilisers enhance crops or oilier foods' resistance to external disturbances, while machinery saves manpower by finishing the major part of the work. The yield is raised to the highest, and lands are used to the full. Enough food can be produced to meet the market need now, despite the continued growth of the population.

Some people defy fertilisers and machinery because of their concern on environment. However, this notion has been challenged by advances in this area of knowledge. Technological innovation has made machinery more environmentally friendly, and many machines used for farming purposes are now able to operate without generating much waste. Fertilisers, by comparison, are much less environment-damaging. Most fertilisers are organic and free of ingredients incompatible with the environment. Nor do they have deleterious effects on people's health.

Despite what has been discussed, farmers should beware of over-application of fertilisers, from an environmental perspective, fertilisers and machinery should be classified and used with caution. The over-application of fertilisers not only has perpetually disastrous effects on farms but also injures the neighbouring ecosystem. Many scientific studies suggest that a long history of fertiliser use can significantly reduce land fertility. Other consequences include poisoning all wildlife feeding on farm crops (e.g., birds), and polluting the neighbouring water bodies. On health and safety grounds, fertilisers might bring remediless damage to eaters' health, for some chemicals, although not fatal themselves, might become life-threatening when accumulating inside eaters' bodies.

On the basis of the above-mentioned arguments, people are convinced that the sustainable supply of foods still rests on fertilisers and machinery, and the key is to use them properly and in moderation.

1. humanity = human race = humankind = people

2. irreplaceable = unique = inimitable = matchless

3. starvation = hunger = food crisis = food shortage

4. account for = explain = justify = give an explanation for

5. unpredictable = random = irregular

6. defy = boldly resist = boldly reject = act against

7. notion = concept = perception = thought = opinion

8. deleterious = detrimental life = damaging = life-threatening

9. disastrous = devastating = ruinous = catastrophic

10. rest on = hinge on = depend on = rely on = count on

Topic 60: Some people hold that we should spend money and time on the protection of wild animals while others suggest that the money should be spent on populations living in the poorest areas of the world. What is your opinion?

In these years, animal protection has become a subject of ongoing scientific research and an issue of concern. People take different views toward the enormous spending required by wildlife conservation. It is suggested that the spending should be diverted to helping human populations, especially those living below poverty line, because human life is more valuable than animal life. In my opinion, the investment in animal conservation is worthwhile.

Animals, as a significant part of an ecosystem, have profound impacts on the sustainability of an ecosystem and on the well-being of humanity. All animals are connected in one way or another in food chains. For this reason, the demise of a species can lead to overpopulation or underpopulation of another species and then put this species at the verge of extinction. The natural balance will be disrupted and the ecosystem cannot be sustained. It would disable vegetation from purifying water, recycling nutrient and pollinating crops. We humans are eventually affected.

Another justification for animal protection is that animals play a significant role in the development of industries, as an important natural resource. People derive substances and materials from animals for different purposes. A typical example is that animals provide essential substances for drug-making. It is also very common that designers and engineers turn to wildlife for inspiration. For instance, the invention ofwater-proofclothingdrew upon the research on sharks.

On account of those benefits, wildlife protection is a significant strategy that has far-reaching effects on the future of human. However, when implemented, this strategy should be adapted in different contexts. It should be noted that spending money simply on animals is not the approach that promises the best outcomes in all circumstances. For example, in those regions where inhabitants struggle with weak economies and have few job sources, direct spending on any animal program would not stop people from hunting and trading animals for a living. An alternative strategy is creating jobs or providing subsidies, lifting these regions out of poverty.

From what has been discussed, animals are key components of the whole natural order and have relevance to the sustainability of an ecosystem and the interests of humanity. Animal protection is a strategy that applies to the whole world, and might vary in different circumstances.

1. divert = switch = redirect

2. worthwhile = worthy

3. purify = cleanse = decontaminate

4. pollinate = fertilise

5. water-proof = water-resistant = rainproof = watertight = impermeable

Date: 2015-12-17; view: 965

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Topic 52: Advertising encourages customers to buy in quantity not in quality. To what extent do you agree or disagree? | Topic 61: Some people strongly oppose animal experimentation, believing that it causes pain to animals, while some other people consider it necessary. What is your opinion?
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