Topic 34: What is the difference between traditional food and fast food?
Fast food has come under fireover the past decade, following people's growing concern on health. When people's eating habits have shown a tendency to favour fast food, larger numbers of studies have been concentrated on its adverse impact. Below is an outline of some differences between fast food and traditional meals.
Fast food is distinguished from traditional food mainly by the selection of ingredients and cuisines. As distinct from a traditional meal, which has its emphasis on diversity and richness of flavour, taste and choice, fast food is well-known for its high levels of salt, fat and sugar and heavy reliance on meat, such as chicken and beef. When fast foods are processed and prepared for those time-minded eaters who are eager to relieve hunger, traditional foods are diverse and varying. Fast foods might not vary significantly throughout a country, but traditional foods are diversified due to ethnic diversity. That's why fast foods are very often thought to have direct threats on local cuisines.
Another problem found in the regular consumption of fast food is the high risk of obesity. A typical fastfood meal has a very high energy density, much higher than a traditional meal. In many outlets, the choice is so limited that it's virtually impossible to select a combination of items with even a moderate energy density. Many popular fastfood menu items are unhealthy, so excessive consumption can lead to obesity. It is one of the main reasons why many fastfood chains have now incorporated healthier alternatives in their menu, e.g., salads and fresh fruit. McDonald's is a telling example.
Moreover, it is important to realise that a traditional meal has many of its cultural and social meanings. Although fast food is recognised for its convenience and saving people from the routine of home cooking, meanwhile it discourages people from preparing deliberate meals for their families and friends. People are thus less likely to spend time talking to each other. Having a traditional meal is of importance in many social situations, and can be taken as a unifying element in family life, bringing people together in times of trouble and in times of joy.
As suggested above, the fast food, although cheap and convenient, has its shortcomings and a diet high in fast foods can increase a person's risk of gaining weight and other health problems. In terms of health, its impact on cuisine, community spirits and family solidarity, the real costs of convenient foods are shockingly high.
1. under fire = embattled = under attack = debated
2.cuisine= style of cooking = cookery = knowledge of preparing good food
3. richness = diversity = variety
4. varying = changing = altering
5. outlet = store = restaurant = shop
Topic 35: As most people spend a major part of adult life at the place of work, job satisfaction is an important part of individual well-being. What are the factors that contribute to job satisfaction? Are all the expectations for job satisfaction realistic?
Job satisfaction refers to the degree of pleas
ure employees can feel when working. It is of broad interest to employers because of its potential impact on productivity and moraleof employees. Of those factors that contribute to job satisfaction, some are intrinsicwhile others are extrinsic. Both will be introduced below. In the latter part of the essay is a discussion concerning whether one's expectations for job satisfaction are always appropriate.
Most of the factors that have influence on job satisfaction are extrinsic. One is employees' material needs. It is understandable that income, housing, paid holiday, bonus and other job benefits are the main elements an employee will normally look into when evaluating whether a job is desirable or not. Another source of satisfaction is job satisfaction. An employee is delighted if continued employment is accessible, that is, staying on a job for some considerable time. Besides these basic needs, people crave for a positive self-image and to have their contribution valued and appreciated. That's why promotion is very often manipulated to improve employees' job satisfaction, sending a message to employees that their commitment has been recognised.
Along with extrinsic factors, intrinsic factors are important. Individual personality plays a large part in many cases. It is believed that the employees with a positive outlookon life and full of optimism are more likely to achieve higher job satisfaction irrespective of the job or workplace they are in. When optimism allows individuals to function well in the fact of adversityand prevents them from becoming depressed, pessimism makes them less likely to complete tasks and meet objectives successfully, thereby undermining job satisfaction.
Given the constantly changing nature of today's business environment, a job can hardly live up to the expectations of job holders. Weak economies, rapidly changing technology and likelihood of downsizing are combining to account for why the length of tenureis shortened nowadays and few people now expect to stay on the same job throughout their working lives. Rewards are able to raise motivation and increase satisfaction of employees, but not available for every individual that wants them. There is no guarantee that every good performer will be awarded all the time. Law of the jungleapplies here: only the strongest competitors will win access to the majority of the resource.
As suggested above, job satisfaction is attributed to different factors, both extrinsic and intrinsic. The complexity of today's work environment has made it less likely for people to get whatever they desire from a job.