Usuns in the history of Kazakhstan (location, economy, social organization, political history).
Political structure of usuns. At the end of the first millennium BC in the Zhetysu, state placed on Tien Shan and Tarbagatay is known from Chinese sources, as the “Usuns Country”. Usuns originally lived in the area of the river Danhe, but in III. BC were forced to move on Mongolia, and after a series of defeats inflicted on them by hunnu in Semirechje and Dzhungariyu. Here usuni, recognizing the dependence of the Huns, was founded in 177 BC own state. In 53 BC Usun has broken into two parts. At the head of state was the governor, which had the title kunbek - "a great governor" passed the throne to inherit. Since 53 BC, when the state was divided, there were appeared independent from each other rulers: great kunbek and small kunbek. Here were two great military leader and ruler of the three parts, called princes.
Since the beginning of creation, usuns state was dependent on hunnu, but quickly managed to be free and became one of the strongest states of the region. Hunnu beginning in the 80-m BC raids on the eastern borders of the state, but after a long struggle suffer defeat against the combined forces of usuns and China. After that Zhetysu connection with the Celestial Empire further strengthened. Further history of usuns full of internecine wars. However, after the collapse of the empire north usuney Hunnu relationship with her deteriorated. This led to a rapprochement with China usuney, in alliance with that in 36 BC was carried out campaign against the northern hunnu. In the 30-ies of the relationship between great and small kunbeks again worsened. Both ownership virtually lost autonomy and de facto ruled by the Chinese governors. In the II century AD usuns power permanently isolated from China. Frequent raids of Zhuzhans forced Usun tribes to move from Zhetysu plains, to the Tien Shan. At the beginning of V century usuns name finally gone from the pages of historical chronicles. It remains to add that ethnonym "usun" survived for this day. One of the Kazakhs families of the Senior Zhuz called “uysun”.
Ancient usuns in Zhetysu breeded different kinds of animals. There were developed horse breeding. Along with developing pastoral farming. The existence of private land tenure is a confirmation in written sources.
Date: 2015-01-02; view: 620
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