In the Pliocene epoch (1.7 m years ago) the River Trent rose in the Welsh hills flowed almost east from Nottingham through the present Vale of Belvoir to cut a gap through limestone ridge at Ancaster and thence to the North Sea. At the end of the Wolstonian Stag 130,000 years ago) a mass of stagnant ice left in the Vale of Belvoir caused the river to d: north along the old Lincoln river, through the Lincoln gap. In a following glaciation (Devensian 70,000BCE) the ice held back vast areas of water - called Lake Humber - in the current lower Trent basin and when this retreated the Trent adopted its current course into the Humber.
Migration of course in historic times
Unusually for an English river, the river channel has occasionally altered significant) historic times. An abandoned channel at Repton is described on an old map as ‘Old Trent Water’. Further downstream, archaeologists have found the remains of a Medieval bridge across and abandoned channel. The course of the river was altered in the area of Ingleby in Derbyshire when 300 acres (1.2 km2) was "moved" from one side of the river to another. This is recorded Shakespeare's play Henry IV - Part 1.
"Methinks my moiety, north from Burton here,
In quantity equals not one of yours:
See how this river comes me cranking in.
And cuts me from the best of all my land
A huge half-moon, a monstrous cantle out.
I'll have the current in this place damm'd up;
And here the smug and silver Trent shall run
In a new channel, fair and evenly;
It shall not wind with such a deep indent.
To rob me of so rich a bottom here."
The literal North/South divide
The Trent historically marked the boundary between Northern England and South England, for example the administration of Royal Forests was subject to a different Justice Eyre north and south of the river, and the jurisdiction of the medieval Council of the North started at the Trent. Although the rise of the “Midlands” has moved the boundary slightly (the modern idea of the "North" now usually starts at the boundary of Yorkshire) some slight traces of the old division do remain: the Trent marks the boundary between the provinces of two English Kings of Arms, Norroy and Clarenceux. Although little heard these days, phrase "born North of the Trent" is one means of expressing that someone hails from the North of England.
Places alone the Trent
Cities and towns on or close to the river include:
· Burton upon Trent
· Castle Donington
· Dunham Bridge - A57 Swing Toll bridge
Among its tributaries are:
· River Devon
· River Greet
· River Derwent, Derby
· River Dove
· River Erewash
· River Idle, Nottinghamshire - meets the Trent at West Stockwith
· River Leen
· River Mease
· River Soar, Leicester - meets the Trent at Trentlock
· River Sow
· River Tame, Birmingham
Success through a foreign language
In our 21st century with its tremendous technological and cultural progress everyone tries to find their own places and to be a success. And there’s no doubt that today knowing at least one foreign language opens many doors and helps to get on in life.
A foreign language is a vital key to benefit professionally and it gives you a lot of opportunities and chances that can increase the communication and negotiation potential of any business situation. For instance, the process of learning a foreign language flexes your creative muscle. The more you exercise your creativity, the more creative you become. Your long-term memory gets a good work-out. Moreover, you feel more confident when communicating, because your interpersonal skills will grow no matter which language is used to converse. It’s a great way to demonstrate your awareness and sensitivity to the diversity in our world’s population.
Knowledge of any foreign language gives you a good opportunity of getting a well-paid and rather prestigious job. Practice shows that employees often have technical and managerial abilities but lack the necessary foreign language skills. So in order to have a competitive edge you should have at least one foreign language under your belt for the employers to give preference to you.
I also believe that any foreign language widens your horizons and liberalizes your outlook. Language and culture are inseparable leading many to see language learning as a form of diversity training. While travelling, you’re able to meet new people, get acquainted with their customs and traditions. And this, in its turn, makes you more broad-minded, educated and build up your confidence and self-esteem.
It goes without saying that the process of learning a foreign language is quite complicated. That’s why before tackling a foreign language you should realize that there is no ladder to success, you should take stairs. Your answer to all your questions should be your goals and incentives. Steering clear of unnecessary information, listening to interactive cassettes, watching foreign films and reading books in the original will help you to converse easier and succeed in learning.
To cut the long story short, I’m convinced that knowing a foreign language will help you to stay current with global changes, land your dream-job and will be the key to the glowing future.