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Part 3 then, after, afterwards PEG 92 B

Insertthen, after, or afterwards.

1 We had tea and . . . went for a walk.Or . . . tea we went for a walk.

2 We'll have watercress soup to start with. What would you like . . . that?

3 . . . waiting for half an hour he went home in disgust. . . . (later on) he was sorry he

hadn't waited longer.

4 I give all the guests breakfast; . . . I have my own.

5 First you loosen the nuts, . . . you jack up the car, . . . you take the wheel off.

6 He listened at the keyhole for a minute; . . . he opened the door cautiously.

7 University administrators sometimes appear more important than scholars; but the

administrators will not be remembered . . . their death.

8 'Put your toys away,' said his mother, 'and . . . we'll have tea.'

9 In the story, the Princess married the Prince and they lived happily ever....

10 He wound up the clock, set the alarm for 5.00, . . . got into bed and fell asleep.

11 He poured the brandy into a glass, warmed it in his hands a little, . . . drank it slowly.

12 I covered the pudding with cream and decorated it with cherries. ~
And . . . ?~
. . . we ate it, of course.

13 For years . . . people remembered that terrible night.

14 I spoke angrily; . . . (some time later) I regretted my words.

15 He looked round to see that nobody was watching; . . . he took a piece of bent wire and began trying to open the door.

16 First you say 'Yes', and . . . you say 'No'. You're an impossible person to make plans with.

Auxiliaries + perfect infinitives

114 Auxiliaries + perfect infinitives
PEG 255

Use the perfect infinitive of the verbs in brackets with a suitable auxiliary verb:

I've never seen a London policeman. -
You (see) one! You've been in London a week already!
You must have seen one.

Note thatnot placed before the verb in brackets refers to the auxiliary verb:
I heard their phone ringing. -

You (not hear) their phone ringing. They haven't got a phone.
You couldn't have heard their phone ringing.

1 Jack: I've finished.

Ann: But you were only half way through when I went to bed. You (work) all night!

2 The instructions were in French. I translated them into English for him. ~
You (not translate) them. He knows French.

3 Tom: What's happened to Jack? We said 7.30 and now it's 8.00 and there's no sign of


Ann: He (forget) that we invited him. He is rather forgetful. I (telephone) him

yesterday to remind him. (It was foolish of me not to telephone.)

4 Tom: Or he (get) lost. He hasn't been to this house before. I (give) him directions.

(I didn't give him directions, which was stupid of me.)
Ann: Or he (have) a breakdown or a puncture.
Tom: A puncture (not delay) him so long.

5 Ann: Or he (stop) for a drink and (get) involved in an argument. Jack's arguments go

on for hours!

Tom: Or he (run) out of petrol. Perhaps we'd better go and look for him.

6 You (not feed) the bears! (It was foolish of you to feed them.) Now they'll be angry if

the next campers don't feed them too.

7 Nobody has been in this house for a month. ~
Nonsense! Here's last Monday's paper in the wastepaper basket; somebody (be) here

quite recently.

8 Two of the players spent the night before the big match at a party. ~
That was very foolish of them. They (go) to bed early.

9 He says that when walking across Kensington Gardens he was attacked by wolves. ~

He (not be attacked) by wolves. There aren't any wolves in Kensington. He (see) some

Alsatian dogs and (think) they were wolves.

10 I waited from 8.00 to 8.30 under the clock and he says he waited from 8.00 to 8.30 under the clock, and we didn't see each other! ~
You (wait) under different clocks! There are two in the station, you know.

11 He set off alone a month ago and hasn't been heard of since. ~
He (fall) into a river and (be eaten) by crocodiles. ~
Or (be kidnapped) by tribesmen. ~
Or (catch) fever and (die) of it.

12 We (start) yesterday (this was the plan)-, but the flight was cancelled because of the fog, so we're still here, as you see.

13 Mary to Ann, who has just toiled up six flights of stairs: You (not walk) up! You (come) up in the lift. It's working now.

14 I left my car here under the No Parking sign; and now it's gone. It (be) stolen! ~
Not necessarily. The police (drive) it away.

15 He had two bottles of Coke and got frightfully drunk. ~
He (not get) drunk on Coke. He (drink) gin with it.

16 He was riding a bicycle along the motorway when he. was hit by the trailer of a lorry. These big lorries are very dangerous. -
Perhaps, but Paul (not ride) a bicycle along the motorway; bicycles are not allowed.

17 I've lost one of my gloves! ~

The puppy (take) it. I saw him running by just now with something in his mouth. It (be)

your glove.

18 We've run out of petrol! ~

I'm not surprised. I noticed that the tank was nearly empty when left home. ~
You (tell) me! We (get) petrol at the last village. Now we've got a 10-mile walk!

19 If the ground hadn't been so soft the horse I backed (win) instead of coming in second. He never does very well on soft ground.

20 I've written to Paul. ~

You (not write). He's coming here tomorrow. You'll see him before he gets your letter.

21 They (build) a two-storey house (this was the original plan), but money ran out so they built a bungalow instead.

22 If the dog hadn't woken us we (not notice) the fire for several hours, and by that time it (spread) the house next door.

23 Why didn't you wait for me yesterday? ~
I waited five minutes. ~
You (wait) a little longer!

24 How did Peter get here? ~

He (come) on a motorcycle. {This is a possibility.) ~

He (not come) on a motorcycle. He doesn't ride one. ~
He (come) as a pillion passenger.

25 (Alice, staying at a hotel for the first time, carefully washes up the early morning tea things.)
Mother: You (not do) that. The hotel staff do the washing up.

26 Why are you so late? You (be) here two hours ago!

27 Mrs Smith: I've cooked scrambled eggs for Mr Jones, because of his diet, and steak and onions for everyone else.
Mr Jones: You (not cook) anything special for me, Mrs Smith; I'm not on a diet any longer.

28 If I'd known we'd have to wait so long I (bring) a book. ~
If I'd known it was going to be so cold I (not come) at all!

29 Tom (looking out of the window): Fortunately that teapot didn't hit anyone, but you (not throw) it out of the window, Ann! You (kill) someone.

30 Look at this beautiful painting! Only a very great artist (paint) such a picture! ~
Nonsense! A child of five (paint) it with his eyes shut.

31 I wonder how the fire started. ~

Oh, someone (drop) a lighted cigarette. Or it (be) an electrical fault. ~

32 You don't think it (be started) deliberately? ~
Well, I suppose it (be). {It is possible.) But who would do a thing like that?

33 There is only one set of footprints, so the kidnapper (carry) his prisoner out. He not (do) it in daylight or he (be) seen. He (wait) till dark.

34 I went with him to show him the way. ~
You (not do) that. {That wasn 't necessary.) He knows the way.

35 Then an enormous man, ten feet tall, came into the ring. ~
He (not be) ten feet tall really. He (walk) on stilts.

36 He jumped out of a sixth-floor window and broke his neck. ~
You say 'jumped'. It (not be) an accident? ~

No. The window was too small. It (be) deliberate.


115 Auxiliaries + perfect infinitives
PEG 255

Use the perfect infinitive of the verbs in brackets with a suitable auxiliary verb.

1 Tom: I had my house painted recently, but when they sent in the bill I was appalled. If

I'd known it was going to cost so much I (not have) it done.

2 Peter: But it's your own fault, Tom. You (ask) for an estimate before letting them start.

3 Mother (very anxious about her son, aged ten): Where is he? He (be) here an hour

ago? (It's now 5.00 and he is usually home by 4.00.)

4 Friend: He (go) to the playground to watch a football match.
Mother: No, if there'd been a match today he (tell) me. He always tells me all the

football news.

5 Friend: His teacher (keep) him in as a punishment.
Mother: She (not keep) him in for a whole hour.

6 Friend: Then he (go) to a friend's house.
Mother: Yes, or he (be) knocked down crossing the street. He may be lying unconscious in hospital!
Friend: If that had happened the hospital (ring) you.
Mother: They (not ring) me. My phone isn't working!

7 He jumped out of the aeroplane and landed unhurt! ~
You mean he parachuted down? ~
He didn't say anything about a parachute. ~
He (have) a parachute. Otherwise he (be) killed.

8 I bought a sweater at Marks and Spencer's last Sunday. ~
You (not buy) it on Sunday. Marks and Spencer's is shut on Sundays.

9 Tom's had another accident. He came out of a side road rather fast and a lorry crashed

into him. ~
It sounds like Tom's fault. He (wait) till the main road was clear.

10 I wonder who carried the piano upstairs. I suppose it was Paul. ~
Paul (not carry) it by himself. Someone (help) him.

11 I was on the Circle Line and we were just leaving Piccadilly— ~
Then you (not be) on the Circle Line. It doesn't go through Piccadilly. You (be) on the Bakerloo Line or the Piccadilly Line.

12 The plane disappeared two weeks ago and no one knows what happened to it. ~
It (crash) into the sea. If it had crashed on land someone (report) it by now. ~

13 But what do you think caused the plane to crash? ~
Who knows? It (blow) up. Someone (plant) a bomb on board before take-off, or one of the passengers (have) explosives with him.

14 Or someone (try) to hijack the plane. And there (be) a fight during which the plane crashed.

15 Or something (go) wrong with the engines, or it (be) a case of metal fatigue. ~
It (not be) metal fatigue because it was a brand new plane.

16 The pilot (collapse) at the controls. ~
But if that had happened the second pilot (take over).

17 Maria (new to English customs): He said, 'How do you do?' so I told him about my migraine.

Ann: You (not do) that. (That wasn't the right thing to do.) You (say), 'How do you

do?' too.

18 It was the depths of winter and we had to wait eighteen hours in an unheated station. ~
You (be) frozen by the time the train arrived.

19 I've done all the calculations. Here you are—six pages. ~
But you (not do) all that work! We have a computer to do that sort of thing. -
You (tell) me! Then I (not waste) all my time!

20 He failed the exam but he (pass) it. (He had the ability to pass it.) It's all his own fault; he (work) much harder during the term.

21 He's not here! Yet I locked him in and bolted the door too, so he (not possibly open) the door from inside. And he (not get) out of the window; it's too small. ~

22 Somebody (let) him out. One of his friends (follow) you here and (slip) in when your back was turned.

23 Passenger: Fares are awful! I had to pay £2 for my ticket and £1 for the baby.

Another passenger: But you (not buy) a ticket for the baby. Babies travel free.

24 Immediately after drinking the coffee I felt very sleepy and the next thing I remember is finding myself lying in the middle of the road. ~
They (drug) your coffee and (dump) you there. ~
If I hadn't woken up when I did I (be run) over. ~
That (be) part of their plan. (It is possible that it was part of their plan.)

25 I found he knew all my movements for the past week. He (bribe) one of the other students to give him the information. ~
Or he (follow) you himself. ~
No, he (not do) that. (That is not possible.) I (see) him.

26 I stamped it and posted it. ~
You (not stamp) it. It was a reply-paid envelope.

27 He walked from London to Cambridge in three hours. ~
He (not do) it in that time! Someone (give) him a lift.

28 I found that everything I said on the phone had been reported to the police. ~
Your phone (be) tapped.

29 My ring's gone! It was on the table by the window only a minute ago! Who (take) it? ~
It (be) a magpie. There are some round here and they like shining things. A magpie (hop) in through the window and (snatch) it when you were out of the room.

(This is possible.)

30 I had to walk home yesterday: I had no money for my fare. ~
You (tell) me! I (lend) you the money!

31 I (not take) a taxi. I (walk); it was only a hundred metres.

(/ took a taxi but it wasn 't necessary. )

32 The shoplifter thought she was unobserved but when she got to the
door a store detective stopped her. They (watch) her on closed-circuit television.

33 When I rang the exchange and asked for the number the operator said, 'You (not ring) the exchange! You (dial) the number direct!' However, he put me through.

34 One moment the conjurer's handkerchief was empty and the next moment it was full of eggs! ~
He (have) the eggs up his sleeve! ~

35 Well, I suppose he (have) eggs up his sleeve: but for his next trick he produced a bowl of goldfish out of the air. He (not have) a bowl of goldfish up his sleeve, now, could he?

36 Mary: My grandmother knew a girl whose fiance was sent to prison for twenty years. This girl (marry) any one of a dozen men because she was a real beauty, but she waited till her fiance came out of jail!
Jack: She (love) him very much.
Ann: She (be) an idiot!

116 Auxiliaries + perfect infinitives
PEG 114 B, 255

Use the perfect infinitive of the verbs in brackets with the appropriate auxiliary. Phrases in bold type should not be repeated but their meaning should be expressed by auxiliary + perfect infinitive.

You (bought) bread, which was not necessary.
You needn 't have bought bread.

1 To someone who was not at the party: 'We had a wonderful time; you (be) there.'

2It is possible that Shakespeare (write) it. ~
Shakespeare (not write) it because events are mentioned that did occur till after

Shakespeare's time.

3 I found this baby bird at the foot of a tree. It (fall) from a nest.

4 I used to visit her and I always wondered why she had those dreadful pictures on

the walls. ~
It is possible that she (like) them.

5 During the gale, the captain was on the bridge the whole time. He (be) exhausted


6 You (send) a telegram, which was quite unnecessary; a letter would have done.

7 You (leave) a note. (It was very inconsiderate of you not to do so.)

8 Somebody phoned at lunchtime t) but I couldn't catch the name. ~
It (be) my brother. He sometimes rings me up then.

9 The lecturer was a tall thin man with white hair. ~
Then it (not be) Dr Fell because he is short and fat. It (be) Dr Jones; I think he is


10 You (not go) out yesterday without a coat. No wonder you caught cold.

11 I saw them in the street but they didn't stop to speak to me. ~
It is possible that they (be) in a hurry.

12 They (be) married next week but now they have quarrelled and the wedding has been


13 If we hadn't had this puncture we certainly (be) home by now.

14 You (carry) the dog,which was unnecessary. He can walk very well.

15 People were waiting but the bus didn't stop. ~
It is possible that it (be) full.

16 We went sailing on a lake in a London park. I think it was the Round Pond. ~

It (not be) the Round Pond. There are only toy boats there. It (be) the Serpentine.

17 Look, there's a tree right across the road! ~
So there is. It (be) blown down by the gale last night.

18 This building (be) finished by the end of last year (this was the plan), but there have

been so many strikes that it isn't finished yet.

19 But for the fog they (reach) the top next day.

20 You (cross) the road by the subway, (but you didn't)

21It is a pity you (not bring) your kite. It is just the day for kites.

22It is possible that I (be) mistaken.
23 I sat on a seat in the park and now my coat is covered in green stripes. ~
The paint (be) wet.

24 I suppose it was Charles who left the kitchen in such a mess. ~
No, it (not be) Charles. He never has a meal in. It (be) Bill.

25 I know she was in because I heard her radio, but she didn't open the door.~
she (not hear) the bell.

26 If you had told me that you were in London I (put) you up.

(This would have been possible.)

27 If they had gone any further they (fall) over a precipice.

28 He (check) that his brakes were working properly, (but he didn't)

29 You (apologize), which was not necessary.

30 I can't think why they didn't try to help him. ~
It is possible that they (not realize) that he was drowning.

31 He (thank) us. (Weare offended that he didn't.)

32 I (go) on Tuesday (this was the plan). But on Tuesday I had a terrible cold so I decided to wait till Wednesday.

33 You (warn) him that the ice was dangerous, (but you didn't)

34 If you had kept quiet nobody (know) anything about it.

35 You (bought) a new one, which wasn't necessary. I could have lent you mine.

36 As soon as I switched on my new electric cooker there was an explosion. ~
There (be) something wrong with it.


Date: 2015-12-17; view: 1217

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