a) What kinds of conflicts are mentioned in the text?
b) What is an Official Secrets Act about?
c) What do you know about Rupert Murdoch (USA) and Silvio Berlusconi (Italy)?
d) What is your vision of the problem of equality?
Discuss in two groups possible problems journalists are faced with in their job. Draw a spider gram to put down the information on the problem. Crosscheck the information with the other group.
Match the words into collocations
Find the words in the text which correspond to the given definitions
extremely important because of major effect on the result of something
a government organization that collects information about the secret plans and activities of a foreign government, enemy etc
an important and powerful person in a particular activity or industry
the process of removing parts of books, films, letters etc that are considered unsuitable for moral, religious, or political reasons
to get involved in smbs life without their permission
a situation in which you have to make a difficult decision
smb who behaves in an immoral way or smb who is responsible for a bad situation
smb who buys and uses goods and services
& 1. Read and study the features of headline languages for further exercises and discussions.
Here are some typical examples of headlines from tabloid newspapers with comments on their use of language.[popular papers with smaller pages than more serious papers]
EXPERT REVEALS NEW MOBILE DANGERS
Articles, prepositions and auxiliary verbs are often omitted from headlines.
This use of the present simple instead of the past tense makes the story sound more immediate.
The use of language is often ambiguous. It is not entirely clear, for example, what mobile refers to here. It is actually about the dangers of mobile phone use but it could have referred to dangers that can move in some way. Readers have to look at the story in order to find out.
Words with dramatic associations such as danger are often used.
TV STAR TRAGIC TARGET FOR MYSTERY GUNMAN
This story is about how a well-known television actor was shot by an unknown killer.
Tabloid newspapers like to use references to royalty or popular figures like film or pop stars or sports personalities in order to attract readers' attention.
Alliteration such as TV Star Tragic Target is often used to attract the eye in headlines and to make them sound more memorable.
Newspapers sometimes use 'shorthand' words such as 'gunman' in order to express an idea or image as briefly and as vividly as possible.
Violent and militaristic words are often used in newspaper headlines, especially in tabloid newspapers, in order to make stories seem more dramatic.
EU acts to crush terror of the thugs Palace besieged by journalists
Crackdownon soccer louts Typhoon rips through town
Playing with words
Many newspaper headlines in English attract readers' attention by playing on words in an entertaining way. For example, a story about the theft of traffic signs erected to help tourists coming to see a solar eclipse in the area was headlined Dark deeds.In this collocation dark usually carries the meaning of wicked, but the headline is cleverly playing with the word dark because at the time of an eclipse the sky goes dark.
Another example is the use of the headline Ruffled feathersto describe an incident where a wife was angry with her husband, a wildlife expert, for allowing a Russian steppe eagle to sleep in their bedroom. We use the idiom to smooth someone's ruffled feathers, meaning to pacify someone after an argument. It is apt to use it here as the story is about a bird (although, of course, it was the woman's feathers which were ruffled).
These headlines were written in a pretend tabloid newspaper about Ancient Greece. Match them with the subjects of their stories (a) to (e) below and comment on the features of headline language they contain.