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Find the words in column A in the texts. Match them to their meaning in the context of the article in B.

1 in-laws (text 1) a) customs
2 forsaking (text 1) b) large numbers
3 mores (text 1) c) get close to
4 droves (text 1) d) best times
5 is set to (text 2) e) broken up
6 booming (text 2) f) reduced
7 bond (text 2) g) increasing
8 heyday (text 2) h) giving up
9 fragmented (text 3) i) brothers and sisters
10 spouses (text 3) j) looks likely
11 wore off (text 3) k) husbands or wives
12 siblings (text 3) I) husband's or wife's


Grammar 2:substitution/ellipsis

1 Look back at the texts in Reading 2. What do the following words in bold in the texts refer to?

1 the one (text 1)

2 this (text 2)

3 such (text 2)

4 such (text 2)

5 such (text 3)

6 It (text 3)

7 They (text 3)

8 Their (text 3)


2 Look at the texts again. Three places are marked with a *. In each place, a different word or phrase is understood by the reader but has been left out of the text by the writer. What word or words have been missed out in each case?


We often try to avoid repeating a word or expression that has already been used, as it improves the style of what we are saying. To do this, we can use other words instead, e.g. it, one, do, there, that so, neither, not. These connect phrases and sentences.


Complete the sentences using a substitute word from the box. Underline the word(s) the substitute word replaces.

it one do there that so neither not

Example: Do you think Joe will remember Kath's birthday? I'm not sure - he might do.


1 I'll be at the theatre at 7 p.m. tonight. Good-I'll meet you ...

2 Are you going to go out with Jim again? I think ..- he was very nice!

3 I can't decide whether to buy a new car or a second-hand ... There are pros and cons on

both sides!

4 Jack asked me whether I was going to the dance or ...

5 Nils lost his job on Friday. .. was a real shock as his employers gave him no warning.

6 They aren't going to the party, and .. are we.

7 It's a difficult decision, but I think I'll take the job .. means I can move to be nearer my family.


We often leave words out to avoid repetition. This is called ellipsis, and it improves the style of the sentence.

3 Which words or phrases have been missed out in each of these sentences? Add the missing words or phrases and compare the two sentences. Which version reads better to you?


1 She was planning to visit her cousin on Saturday, but now she can't ..

2 They feel tired but ..very happy with the decision they reached.

3 Kate is leaving on Thursday, but she will email to tell you why .. .

4 Borrow as many books as you want

5 That laptop belongs to John. This .. is mine.

6 He promised to email me, but he hasn't .. .

7 If you can .., call me when you get there.

8 I'm sorry I got annoyed - I didn't mean to .. .

Each of these dialogues has a mistake. Find the mistakes and correct them.


1 A: Are you going to move house? B: No. I'm afraid I can't afford.

2 A: I've managed to fix the broken mp3 player. B: Well, I think we should get a new. It'll never be the same again!

3 A: Tell Peter I want to speak to him, please. B: No problem. I do.

4 A: Who does this book belong to? : I think it's Karen's one.

5 A: We all seem to have more free time than we used to. B: Do you think? I'm not so sure!

6 A: Do you think the traffic will be bad on Saturday? : I expect it because people will be trying to drive to the beach as it's hot.


Date: 2015-12-17; view: 751

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