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Breast Diseases and Conditions

This diagram shows the different stages in the process of making a purchase with a credit card. We can see from it that there are five different parties involved in such a transaction and there are seven different steps until the merchant receives payment.

The first step is that the customer offers to pay for the goods by credit card. At that point, the merchant has to request for the payment to be authorised by the credit card organisation, which must also request authorisation in turn from the consumer’s bank. Once that authorisation has been received, the merchant can then release the goods to the customer.

The merchant, however, does not receive the money for the transaction until it has paid a fee to the credit card organisation. After that has been paid, the consumer’s issuing bank will transfer the money for the transaction to the merchant’s own bank, which will then credit the merchant’s bank account with the amount of the purchase less the credit card fee.

notes

introduction

This diagram shows the different stages in the process of making a purchase with a credit card

Simple sentence to start explaining what the diagram shows

We can see from it that there are five different parties involved in such a transaction and there are seven different steps until the merchant receives payment.

Complete the introduction by giving an overview of the process (how many steps and how many parties)

paragraphs 1 and 2 sequencing language

The first step…At that point….Once that authorisation has been received…in turn…until… After that has been paid

paragraph 1 organisation and vocabulary.

This follows the authorisation procedure step by step until step 4.

I have not changed the vocabulary much but I have used

  • ”authorised” and not “authorisation”
  • “customer” for “consumer”
  • “goods” for “product”

Paragraph 2 organisation and vocabulary

The key to this paragraph is the first sentence. The merchant receiving his money is step 7. However, because it helps me organise the paragraph, I have used it out of order in the first sentence as the main point.

I have used some “new” vocabulary here: purchase credit

 

 

Breast Diseases and Conditions

 

When many women think of breast disease, they think of breast cancer. But there are many other diseases and conditions of which women need to be aware. Each breast has 15 to 20 sections, called lobes, each with many smaller lobules. The lobules end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can produce milk. Lobes, lobules and bulbs are all linked by thin tubes called ducts. These ducts lead to the nipple, which is centered in a dark area of breast skin called the areola. The areola also has oil-producing glands that secrete a lubricant to make breastfeeding easier. The spaces between the lobules and ducts are filled with fat. There are no muscles in the breast, but muscles lie under each breast and cover the ribs.

 

These normal features can sometimes make the breasts feel lumpy. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) says this is especially true in women who are thin or who have small breasts. A woman's breasts also change each month, with her menstrual cycle. The breasts also change as a woman gets older. Common breast changes fall into several broad categories. These include generalized breast changes, solitary lumps, nipple discharge, and infection and/or inflammation.



 

Let’s consider some of the diseases and conditions that affect the breasts.

 

Benign breast disease

 

Benign breast disease is known by several names including:

1 - lumpiness or generalized breast lumpiness

2 - fibrocystic changes or fibrocystic disease

3 - mammary dysplasia

 

Breast lumpiness, which is sometimes described as "ropy" or "granular," can often be felt in the area around the nipple and areola and in the upper-outer part of the breast. Such lumpiness may become more obvious as a woman approaches middle age and the milk-producing glandular tissue of her breasts increasingly gives way to soft, fatty tissue. Unless she is taking replacement hormones, this type of lumpiness generally disappears for good after menopause.

 

There are times when this condition becomes more noticeable. For example, during the menstrual cycle, many women experience swelling, tenderness and pain before and sometimes during their periods. At the same time, one or more lumps or a feeling of increased lumpiness may develop because of extra fluid collecting in the breast tissue. Pregnancy also can bring changes. During pregnancy, the milk-producing glands become swollen and the breasts may feel lumpier than usual.

 

NCI says that the majority of breast lumps are benign, that means they are not cancerous. Even so, it is important that any woman, who notices a lump or change in her breast, see her HCP. Although benign lumps rarely, if ever, turn into cancer, according to NCI, cancerous lumps can develop near benign lumps and can be hidden on a mammogram. Even if you have had a benign lump removed in the past, you cannot be sure any new lump is also benign.

 

Breast cancer

 


Date: 2014-12-21; view: 534


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