Home Random Page



Information is knowledge about individuals, objects, facts, events, phenomenons and processes irrespective of their form of representation.







Specialties:5050508- Accounting and Audit, 5050509- Finance, 5050508- Management


Authors (Lecturer): Auyezbayeva T.E. - Candidate of Science (PhD) in Physical and Mathematical Science, senior teacher of TURAN University

Program:Full-Time Credit

Number of Credits:3



Study language:English

Grading system:Rating/Score scale

Almaty 20013


Information Processing


After learning this chapter the students will be able to:

Distinguish between data and information: Data as raw unprocessed facts; information as processed data.

Explain the characteristics and functions of Information Processing: Forms of Information Processing: automation, process control, commercial, industrial, and scientific data processing; information retrieval and management.

Identify the sources of data in specified application areas: Source document, turnaround document, machine and human readable document.

Describe methods of validation and verification of data: Difference between validation and verification. Methods: range check, reasonableness checks, data type checks, inconsistency checks.

Identify appropriate verification and validation checks given a particular scenario: Such as double entry to identify and correct typographical/transposition errors.

Describe various methods of file organization and access: Sequential field ordering; random, index-sequential; direct- access, sequential-access.

Select appropriate file organization for particular application: Associate an appropriate file structure and access method to a specific application. For example, a payroll file would be organised sequentially with sequential access.

describe how data are stored and manipulated within the computer: Binary, octal and hexadecimal number systems; binary addition and subtraction. Integers (positive and negative): sign and magnitude, BCD, twos complement; representation of characters, ASCII.


Information as a concept has a diversity of meanings, from everyday usage to technical settings. Generally speaking, the concept of information is closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, instruction, knowledge, meaning, mental stimulus, pattern, perception, and representation.

Information is the result of processing, gathering, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the receiver. In other words, it is the context in which data is taken.

Information is knowledge about individuals, objects, facts, events, phenomenons and processes irrespective of their form of representation.

A message in its most general meaning is an object of communication it is something which provides information; it can also be this information itself. Therefore, its meaning is dependent upon the context in which it is used; the term may apply to both the information and its form.

More precisely, in communications science: A message is information which is sent from a source to a receiver.

Message definition through it properties: Any thought or idea expressed in a language, prepared in a form suitable for transmission by any means of communication. An arbitrary amount of information whose beginning and end are defined or implied.


Numbering Systems

This chapter discusses some of the methods that are used to represent numbers with groups of transistors or bits. The reader will also be given methods for calculating the minimum and maximum

values of each representation based on the number of bits in the group.

Date: 2015-12-17; view: 820

<== previous page | next page ==>
Supplementary exercises | Unsigned Binary Counting
doclecture.net - lectures - 2014-2022 year. Copyright infringement or personal data (0.013 sec.)