Distributional analysis. Morphemic analysis. IC-analysis
By the term distributionwe understand the occurrence of a lexical unit
relative to other lexical units of the same level (words relative to words /
morphemes relative to morphemes, etc.). In other words by this term we
understand the position which lexical units occupy or may occupy in the text or in
the flow of speech. The distributionof a unit is the sum total of all its
environments. The environment of a unit may be either “right” or “left”. It is
readily observed that a certain component of the word-meaning is described when
the word is identified distributionally.
The distributional analysisis used to fix and study the units of language in
relation to their contextual environments, i. e. adjoining elements in the text. In the
distributional analysis at the morphemic level, phonemic distribution of
morphemes and morphemic distribution of morphemes are discriminated. The
study is conducted in two stages. At the first stage, the analyzed text is divided into
recurrent segments consisting of phonemes. These segments are called “morphs”.
At the second stage, the environmental features of the morphs are established and
the corresponding identifications are effected.
Three main types of distribution are discriminated: contrastive, noncontrastive
and complementary. Contrastive and non-contrastive distribution
concern identical environments of different morphs. The morphs are said to be in
contrastive distributionif their meanings are different. Such morphs constitute
different morphemes (eg. played, playing). The morphs are said to be in noncontrastive distributionif their meaning is the same. Such morphs constitute
“free alternants”, or “free variants” of the same morpheme (eg. burned, burnt).
Complementary distributionconcerns different environments of formally
different morphs which are united by the same meaning. If two or more morphs
have the same meaning and the difference in their form is explained by different
environments, these morphs are said to be in complementary distribution and
considered the allomorphs of the same morpheme (eg. desks, girls, glasses).
The morphemic analysis(sometimes also called morphological) is one of
possible methods of analyzing word structure along with the word-building
analysis. The morphemic analysis is a process of singling out morphs in a word
and stating their meaning. To state the borders between morphemes correctly, it is
necessary to study the word in a row of words which are structurally similar
(words with the same root and suffixes).
The procedure of the morphemic analysis states the morphemic structure of
the word. The procedure consists of two operations:
1) the stem is separated from the inflection by means of comparing wordforms
of the word;
2) relations between morphemes in the stem are stated by means of
comparing cognate words.
The morphemic analysis based on the distributional analysis gave rise to
such notions as morph, allomorph, morpheme, etc.
The theory of Immediate Constituents (IC)was originally elaborated as an
attempt to determine the ways in which lexical units are relevantly related to one
another. It was discovered that combinations of such units are usually structured
into hierarchically arranged sets of binary constructions. For example in the wordgroup
a black dress in severe stylewe do not relate ato black, black to dress,
dressto in,etc. but set up a structure which may be represented as a black dress /
in severe style.Thus the fundamental aim of IC analysis is to segment a set of
lexical units into two maximally independent sequences or ICs thus revealing the
hierarchical structure of this set. Successive segmentation results in Ultimate
Constituents (UC), i.e. two-facet units that cannot be segmented into smaller units
having both sound-form and meaning. The Ultimate Constituents of the word13
group analysed above are: a| black | dress | in | severe| style.The meaning of the
sentence, word-group, etc. and the IC binary segmentation are interdependent. For
example, fat major’s wifemay mean that either ‘the major is fat’ or ‘his wife is
fat’. The former semantic interpretation presupposes the IC analysis into fat
major’s | wife,whereas the latter reflects a different segmentation into IC’s and
namely fat| major’s wife.
Date: 2015-12-17; view: 1597