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The present continuous has the following j use.

* arrangements for things to happen at a fixed

We're meeting in the conference room at 10.

* time in the future

Are you seeing the accountant tomorrow?

The imperative

* positive instructions: infinitive of the verb without to Come in!

Turn off the lights when you leave.

* negative instructions: Don't + infinitive without to Don't be late! Don't forget to post those letters.

* Let's + infinitive is also a polite imperative Let's finish. Let's go for lunch now.

conditional instructions: If+ ' present tense + imperative If you see Joan, give her my best wishes. Don't interrupt him if he's busy. If we don't get an answer by Friday, send them another email.

Passive verbs

Passive sentences are formed as follows. Subject + to be + past participle (+ by + agent [person or thing who did the action])

1.Active: We manufacture the goods in Korea. Passive: The goods are manufactured in Korea.

2.Active: The sales team sold 4,000 units last month.

Passive: Four thousand units were sold last month.

3.Active: The CEO will open the new factory next week.

Passive: The factory will be opened by the CEO next week.

4.Active: The CEO has opened the new factory this week.

Passive: The factory has been opened by the CEO this week.

5.Active: The CEO is opening the new factory now.

Passive: The factory is being opened by the CEOnow.

The passive has the following uses.

* when we don't know who did something My purse has been stolen!

* when it isn't important who did something These products were tested yesterday.

Conditionals

Conditional Iinstructions: If + present tense + imperative

If I'm not in the office, please leave a message.

Conditional 1

If + present tense + future with will or won't

If + present tense + can / can't / could /

couldn't

If our competitors find out about our new

product, they'll want to copy it.

We'll he very happy if you conjoin us for dinner.

Conditional 1 has the following uses.

talk about the future results of a possible action or event

If we spend too much, we'll run out of money. They won't buy our products if they aren't good quality.

If management doesn't give us the budget we need, we could have problems.

terms in a contract or agreement

If you are not fully satisfied with this product, we will refund your money.

Conditional 2

If + past tense + would / wouldn't

|f + past tense + could / might

Conditional 2 has the following uses.

If the price was lower, I'd buy it.

I wouldn't buy it if it wasn't good quality.

If you reduced the price, we might he interested

imagine unreal situations If everyone used email, we wouldn't need to send letters.

imagine the results of improbable actions or events

If our sales increased by 15 per cent, we'd make a lot of profit.

If other companies entered the market, there would be more competition.

If electric cars didn't have so many disadvantages, more people would buy them.



Countable / Uncountable nouns

countable nouns have singular and plural forms use a/an with the singular use either singular or plural verb form worker, hook, desk, machine, coin, company, suggestion

uncountable nouns have no plural form

never use a/ an

use only singular verb form

staff, oil, water, equipment, money, information, advice

 

Some

in positive sentences

- with countable nouns in the plural

- with uncountable nouns We're having some problems. There's some coffee on the table.

in offers and requests

- with both countable and uncountable nouns
Would you like some tea or some biscuits?

Any

in negative sentences and questions

- with countable nouns in the plural

- with uncountable nouns

We don't use any videos on our website. There isn't any information about hotels. Do you have any details about this?

Much

mainly in negative sentences and questions

- with uncountable nouns
We haven't got much time.

Is there much demand in Europe?

Many

mainly in negative sentences and questions

- with countable nouns in the plural

Do you have customers in the south? No, not many.

a lot of / lots of (informal)

in positive sentences

- with countable nouns in the plural

- with uncountable nouns

You see a lot of surveillance cameras in the

streets in London.

There's a lot of computer crime nowadays.

 

Modal verbs

* modal verbs are followed by the infinitive without to I must go now. I can't find the customer file. Could we start soon?

* exceptions are have to and need to
I need to go now.

We don't have to keep these records. Do you have to leave now?


Date: 2015-12-17; view: 877


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Present simple and continuous tenses | Grammatical category. Grammatical meaning. Grammatical form
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