It was created in 1948.One of the main aims of the NHS is to respect the confidentiality of individual patients and provide open access to the information about services.
What way is the NHS funded?
Funding for the NHS is met from tax and National Insurance contributions paid by all persons over the age of 18 and employers in the UK.
What kinds of health care are charged for?
The NHS provides free of charge service for the patient. There are private hospital where the patientís pay money for treatment. Patients in England elder 18 pay a fixed price for each drug they are prescribed. The real price of this drug may be bigger or smaller. Such services as ambulance and mental services are financed from the NHS budget.
Speak on the General Practitioners as the core of the NHS.
The core of service is the General Practitioners (GP or family doctors) who are responsible for the care of patients registered with them. GPs are mostly private doctors that choose to contract with the NHS to provide services to patients.
Health care system in the USA
How is American health care system organized?
PHS consist of family doctor medical establishment and PHS itself In USA the Department of Health and Human Services is the executive committee of US government.It was created in 1953 (firstly) as the department of Welfare and Health.There are such agency of the Public Health Service as : Health administration, the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Agency of Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry.
How do people pay for health care in the USA?What are Medicare and Medicaid?
Health care in USA is charged.Itís the most expensive health care system in the world.Aproximately 75% of the population have their health insurance.Most employers and their families now pay more than 50% or the cost of health insurance. There are 2 programs of the federal government : Medicare and Medicaid(started in 1966 and providing free medical care for the poor and aged, for the blind and dependent children.Medicare started in 1967 and provide free or discounted medical care for Americans over 65.
What are the agents of the Public Health Service?
The agencies of the Public Health Service are:
Centers for Diseases Control and Prevent
The Food and Drug Administration
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
The Agency of Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
What are the problems of health care system in the USA?
The main problems of health care system in the USA are AIDS, medical care of mental patients and to the needs of growing segments of population Ė the elderly, single parent families, and cultural, ethnic and racial minorities.
What types of medical institutions are there in the communities?
There are General and Specialized medical institutions.
What are the difference between general and specialized hospitals?
General hospitals provide such services as : general and specialized medicine, surgery, obstetrics, seven-days treatment and acute cases.Specialised hospitals provide other services.They are TB, long-term treatment, rehabilitation, psychiatry.
What are the types of hospitals according to the means of their financial support ?
There are government, private and voluntary or non-profit hospitals.
Why are emergency units in hospitals becoming more important?
Because emergency rooms usually operate on a twenty four hours a day, they are equipped with the most sophisticated facilities, available today.They have always been used by the critically ill or injured, but now even people with the conditions which arenít critical may get treatment.
Name medical specialties and define each.
Allergist (a physician skilled in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases or conditions caused by allergy)
Anaesthesiologist (use drugs and gases to render patients unconscious during the operation)
Cardiologists (treat heart diseases)
Dermatologists (treat infections, growths, and injuries related to the skin)
Gynaecologist (a physician who specializes in the care, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders of the female reproductive system.)
Neurologists (treat disorders of the central nervous system)
Obstetricians (work with women throughout their pregnancy deliver infants and care for the mother after the delivery)
Oncologists ( specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of cancers and tumors)
Pathologists (study the characteristics causes and progression of diseases;examine dead bodies to find out the cause of death)
Otolaryngologists (specialize in the treatment of conditions or diseases of the ear nose and throat)
Radiologists (perform diagnosis and treatment by the se of X-rays and radioactive materials)
Surgeons (a doctor who treats injuries or diseases by operations in which the body sometimes has to be cut open, and to remove a diseased part.)
Urologists (specialize in conditions of the urinary tract in both sexes and of the sexual/reproductive systems in males)
Emergency medicine (work specifically in emergency departments where they treat acute illnesses and emergency situations)
Paediatricians (provide care for children from birth to adolescence)
General practitioner (A physician whose practice is not oriented to a specific medical specialty but instead covers a variety of medical problems in patients of all ages)
Taking a history
What are the main components of clinical examination?
History of presenting complaint(HPC)
History of present illness(HPI)
Systemic enquiry (SE)
Past medical history(PMH)
What systems are reviewed and why?
Systemic enquiry(SE) include: General, Cardiovascular system(CVS) Respiratory system(RS) Gastrointestinal system (GS) Genitourinary system (GUS) Central nervous system (CNS).It is make for taking the main symptoms of the major bodily system.
What information should be defined during taking a history of presenting complaints?
During taking a history the main symptoms should be clearly defined.The onset severity progression associated features or symptoms are all important.A special focus is also made on pains associated or not with specific organs.
What is surgery?What does it deal with?
Surgery is one of the most important fields of health service.It is a branch of medicine which treats diseases injuries deformities malformations and other pathological conditions by methods which involve opening manipulating and repairing a part of the body.
What are the main controlling factors in surgery?Give their definitions.
The main controlling factors in surgery are anaesthesia and asepsis. Anaesthesia is used to avoid shock in a patient and to make him insensitive to pain. Asepsis is a complex of measures used to prevent introduction of microorganisms into the wound from without.It means that everything which comes into contact with the wound must be germ-free i.e. sterile.
How is a patient prepared for an operation?
First of all he shouldnít drink or eat anything for 12 hours before the operation to avoid complications with anaesthesia. A patient is often given an enema before the operation to empty the colon from wastes. The area to be operated is thoroughly cleaned shaved and painted with the solution of iodine. The patient is put on operation table covered with a sterilized cloth and administered narcosis. the doctor close the wound by sutures and dresses it with sterile gauze. afterwards the patient is under special care and attention.
What are the method of sterilization?
The methods of sterilization include boiling, low or high pressure steam sterilization and cold sterilization(applied to edged instruments that would be blunted by boiling.
What instruments and equipment are used during operation?
Surgery requires a large variety of specialized equipment. In addition to the special operating table, there are high0intensity lights and the anaesthesia machine. There are vacuum machines. The main instruments are scalpels forceps suture needles retractors and other instruments.
What is the primary aim of firs aid?Name its key points?
The primary aim of first aid is to avoid any risk to a personís life or health which can posed by a medical emergency.The key aims of first aid can be summarized in 3 key ďpĒ points: to preserve life, to prevent futher harm and to promote recovery.
What accidents can result in emergemcies?
Different natural and man-made disasters and such as floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, crowds traffic accident gas or nuclear explosions fire etc.
What is ABC of first aid?What is CPR?What are its aspects?
The ABC of the first aid refers to the assessment of personís airways breathing and circulation(if the airway hasnít become blocked if breathing hasnít stopped and if the person isnít in cardiac arrest)
The cardiopulmonary resuscitation of a victim in these instances involves 2 aspects.The first is getting oxygen into the blood by blowing air into the lungs.The second is heart massage Ė application of chest pressure to compress the heart and squeeze blood out of it into the circulatory system.
What happens in shock?Describe the symptoms of shock.A condition which accompanies many medical emergencies is circulatory shock, commonly known simply as shock.It is a serious life-threatening medical condition in which the victimís bodily tissues donít receive an adequate supply of oxygen-containing blood.The essential signs of shock are seen as
Poor organ perfusion(such as low urine output confusion or loss of consciousness)
Nausea vomiting diarrhea
What is a first aid kit?What should it contain?What for?
A first aid kit includes the readily available medications and necessary equipment.Any first aid kit should contain sterile cotton wool, adhesive bandages and gauze pads for cleaning wounds.saline for cleaning wounds or washing out foreign bodies from the eyes, and antiseptic wipes or sprays to reduce the risk of infection in abrasions or around the wounds.Various simple micarions such as aspirin painkillers antihistamines activated charcoal emetics to induce vomiting tranquilizers smelling salts and other should be available.Some medications for topical applications antiseptic ointment fluid or spray iodine or brilliant green solution burn gel mild anesthetic and others.a more elaborate kit contains forceps disposable syringes and hypotermic needles a stethoscope for measuring the heartbeat or listening to the lungs a hemomanometer thacheotomy an suture kits and supplies of dextrose plasma and saline colutions.
How to help a victim in case of poisoning and bleeding?
If the person swallowed the poisonous substance he must be taken the antidote for each substance .In some cases the victim be forced to vomit or even gastric lavage.
What is trauma?What can it result in?
Trauma is a physical wound or injury, such as a fracture or blow.Major trauma can result in secondary complications such as circulatory shock, respiratory failure and death.
What is a classification of fractures?Give Their definitions.
A bone may be broken or fractured in variety of ways.In a simple or closed fracture, the bone fragments donít pierce the skin.If the bone ends come through the skin, the break is known as a compound or open fracture.Comminuted fracture is an injury in which the bone has broken into a number of pierces.
What is a sprain and strain?What is the first aid for a fracture?
A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon in which the muscle fibres tear as a result of overstretching.A sprain is a more serious injury of a joint caused by a forcible twisting, with damage to the surrounding blood vessels, nerves and mainly ligaments.It is best not to test it by pressing or moving, but to put a temporary splint until medical attention is available.Anything which will keep the area stiff, such as a wooden stick or rolled newspapers can be used for a splint.Pain management and immobilization of the damaged area or the whole victim are also recommended.
What are abrasions? Are they considered to be dangerous injuries and why?
An abrasion as the scraping of the skin surface. Most of them heal on their own without treatment.
What is a chemistís shop?What can we buy there?
Chemistís shop is an institution of health service which supplies the population with medicines and medical things.It is a place where a wide variety of articles is sold, where prescription can be made;drugs are composed, dispensed, stored and sold.
What are the essential parts of the complete prescription?
A complete prescription is made up of six essential parts: The patientís name, the superscription, the inscription,the subscription, the signature, and the prescriberís name.The inscription is the body of the prescription.The inscription may consist of 3 parts: medication, adjuvant and vehicle.The signature consists of the directions to be given to the patient.The prescriberís name is the part of the prescription that guarantees its authenticity.